The format is based on the format used in scientific journal articles where papers have an introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion. It should be written in 12-point font (Arial, Helvetica or Calibri), double-spaced and formatted using the APA style for in text citations and references cited. • Scientific papers are written in the third person. o Avoid the use of first person: I, us, we, etc. • Avoid direct quotes; rather paraphrase o Inclusion of direct quotes will result in a point deduction. • Include page numbers on all pages except the title page. The Introduction begins with page 2. The References Cited page has a page number on it by is on its own page. • Include a running head (described below). DIRECT QUOTES: Direct quotes are rarely used in scientific writing. This means you must PARAPHRASE (rewrite the information in your own words). Please consider seeking help at the Writing Center if you need help with choosing sources, paraphrasing, use of in-text citations, or any other aspect of writing. The only time direct quotes are used in scientific writing is when changing the quote would change the meaning of the author’s words. In scientific writing there is a fair amount of shared language. For example, how many ways can one describe, “add 500 microliters to the reaction tube?” or “the sample dialyzed for 30 minutes.” Please be sure to include an in-text citation and reference for all materials that you have to look up. When in doubt, include an intext citation and reference on the References Cited page. APA FORMATTING GUIDES: • e_guide/general_format.html REQUIRED SECTIONS OF LAB REPORT • Title page • Introduction • (Overview of) Material and methods • Results • Discussion • References cited All sections should be labeled with their section (e.g. INTRODUCTION, RESULTS) except for the title page. Each section will be described below: TITLE PAGE: The Title page is on separate page from the Introduction. Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. • Title should be centered and in the upper half of the page as Title here in sentence case For example, The effects of body position on electrocardiogram • The following information should be centered and in the bottom half of the page: Your name Date (the due date) Professor’s name name Course name/Semester The title page should also contain a running head (abbreviated title). It is typed in upper case letters and is located in the top header section of the page, aligned to the right side of the paper. On the title page include the words, Running head: TITLE OF PAPER. Thereafter don’t repeat the words Running head; just the running head in all caps. Please note that on the title page, your page header/running head should look like this: Running head: ABBREVIATED TITLE Pages after the title page should have a running head that looks like this: ABBREVIATED TITLE APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced. INTRODUCTION: • Briefly introduce the subject of physiology. • Explain the significance of this project for you as a physiology student. • Provides sufficient background, leading to main objectives and hypothesis/hypotheses. METHODS: • This section should NOT be a detailed narrative of every step in your experimental process but rather an overview of the general materials and methods. Reference the specific Lab Exercise and provide an overview of the experiment. Professor Thomford is the author of the Lab Exercises. For example: A solution of 0.5% starch, 10% glucose and 1.5% protein was placed inside a dialysis bag. The bag was placed in a dish of Lugol’s iodine (0.4% Iodine potassium iodide) solution for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes, the contents of the dialysis bag and the solution (environment) were observed for color changes (Lab exercise #, Author last name, year). A change in color to blue in the dialysis bag indicates that the Lugol’s iodine  solution for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes, the contents of the dialysis bag and the solution (environment) were observed for color changes (Lab exercise #, Author last name, year). A change in color to blue in the dialysis bag indicates that the Lugol’s iodine penetrated the dialysis bag and reacted with glucose. It shows the presence of glucose in a solution. The negative control for the experiment was a dialysis bag filed with 0.5% starch and 1.5% protein, and the positive control was a bag filed with 0.5% starch, 10% glucose and 1.5% protein. The experimental and control samples were tested under the same conditions. … • Summarize the purpose of the test, how it was done, and what a positive and negative control result should look like. Reference the appropriate Lab Exercise, include in-text citation(s) and reference(s) on References Cited page. RESULTS: • In paragraph format, describe your results. • Don’t interpret results; just state them. • Include results for positive and negative controls. • In addition to the written description of your results, present your data in table and graph format. o Tables: Include a descriptive title centered over the top of the table. o Figures (this includes graphs): should have a title and figure caption below the figure. The figure caption should very succinctly describe the results. Include a legend if necessary (blue = group 1, red = group 2,..) DISCUSSION: The Discussion section is used to explain and describe the results (in this order please): • The main goal of this experiment is to…. • All the key results and steps used in your experiment should be included. • Next discuss the relevance of the experiment performed to an aspect of physiology. For example, relate the dialysis experiment (Lab 2) to digestion or exchange in the kidneys. • Follow the APA formatting for in text citations and the works cited page. See below. REFERENCES CITED: • Provide the complete in text citation and works cited for all sources referenced in the paper in APA format. This includes the in text citations and references cited page at the end of your report. • References should appear in alphabetical order by the first author’s last name. • Provide a reference for all facts discussed in the introduction, methods and discussion. • Include reference to the appropriate Lab Exercise. APA IN-TEXT CITATION BASICS When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

How to revise an essay
To improve an essay, you should go over the entire piece first to understand the overall structure and content. Then, pay attention to individual paragraphs and sentences. Identify any parts that might be difficult to understand and think of ways to clarify them. Make sure to fix any grammatical mistakes or typos. Make sure the sentences connect well and make sense. Lastly, check the beginning and the end of the essay to ensure they effectively summarize the main ideas and make a good impression on the reader.