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Def ect w a st e p ro b le m i n t he co nst ruct io n I nd ust ry ! ! !







Collapse of buildings

Source Aljazeera News, 2019

Student Number: W19042969


Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering

Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE18ST, United





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onstruction defect can be defined as a fault in design, the worship and material system which leads to project failure.





Collapse of buildings

Source: (Aljazeera News, 2019))






Generally, defects occur as a result of failure to follow required guidelines resulting to

financial, property and personal damages as argued by Robson, (2015). Construction defects

are usually hard to identify since only experts can analyze when a procedure is not correctly

followed (Waziri, 2016).


Types of construction defects

Design defects


Errors in designing

Source:(Katume, 2017))


Design defects occurs when engineers and architects make errors when

planning on how facilities are going to be constructed. The most likely losses

errors that might occur includes the water penetration plan, poor draining

system design and inadequate structural support leading to occurrence of




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Material defects





Material defects in projects

Source: (Hazem, 2017)




Material defects occurs when inferiorproducts are

used during the construction. The material used in

construction projects is based on the requirement of

the end products. the higher the quality of the end

product, the higher the material quality that should

be used. The use of inferior products means that the

buildings and infrastructures cannot last for long

period ((Tayeh, et, al, 2017)

The interpretation of designs is important for the safety of the

occupants and users of buildings. Workmanship is a scenario

where construction is not undertaken as per the directions of the

designers. It results from misinterpretation of designs and pans

leasing to poor quality of buildings (Bagdiya&Wadalkar,2015)



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How defects lead to wastages in the construction industry




Effects of defects in construction






In construction works, defects must be corrected otherwise, they might lead to greater losses in

future. The wastage in defects comes as a result of additional work that needs to be performed to

correct defects that are noted.


Financial wastages

Financially, organizations are forced to use more funds to undertake repairs as a result of additional

work to mend the effects of defects. Since projects are run under strict budgets, there is need for

project managers to ensure that the actual expenses do not exceed the budget. However, it is

difficult for project managers in construction project to ensure that budget is actualized since more

resources will be allocated in order to amend the defects.


Human resource wastage

In terms of human resources, organizations are made to committee more employees for repairs as

opposed to using the employees in undertaking other important stages of the projects. In presence of

defects in construction projects hence means that employees will be used to undertake repeat tasks

rather than undertaking progress tasks and advancing the projects (Dey, et al., 2017).


Time wastage

Construction projects are undertaking in consideration with a time plan. This means that project

managers are required to follow the project plans in order to deliver each milestone at the right

time. However, the presence of defects in the projects is likely to lead to delays in the process of

project management (Gulghane&Khandve, 2015). Since defects have to be solved immediately,

they are realized, time is used when trying to redo the work. This leads to time wastage and project

delay. Milestones cannot be reached at the required time since employees have to concentrate in

amending the defects to reduce risks of losses and accidents upon completion of the project (Tejale,