Solved by a verified expert:Question 1The most common neurotransmitter in the brain isAnswerglycine.acetylcholine.serotonin.GABA.1.5 pointsQuestion 2What neurotransmitter is used by neurons with cell bodies in the raphe nuclei along themidline of the brainstem?AnswerserotonindopamineglycineGABA0.5 pointsQuestion 3Botulism toxin prevents release of Ach, causingAnswerflaccid paralysis.hemiplegia.spastic paralysis.None of the choices are correct.0.5 pointsQuestion 4Degeneration of spinal motor neurons in adults may be due to a lack of ____________factor.Answerbrain-derived neurotrophic (BDNF)neurotrophin-3nerve growth (NGF)glial-derived neurotrophic (GDNF)1.5 pointsQuestion 5White matter isAnswermyelinated axons in the CNS.myelinated axons in the PNS.nonmyelinated cell bodies and dendrites in the CNS.nonmyelinated axons in the CNS.0.5 points Question 6Excitatory postsynaptic potentials are produced byAnswerglycine.glutamic acid.gamma-aminobutyric acid.benzodiazepines.0.5 pointsQuestion 7Which gas(es) can function as a neurotransmitter?Answercarbon dioxidenitric oxidecarbon monoxideboth nitric oxide and carbon monoxide.0.5 pointsQuestion 8The gap of exposed axon in the myelin sheath is theAnswerneurilemma.node of Ranvier.sheath of Schwann.white matter.0.5 pointsQuestion 9Muscarinic ACh receptors act through ____________ activation of K + channels.AnswercGMPG-proteinM-proteinATP0.5 pointsQuestion 10Which of the following is NOT a function of neurotrophins?Answermaintaining sympathetic ganglionsustain neurons that use the NT dopamineembryonic development of neuronsregeneration of injured motor neurons0.5 pointsQuestion 11In a myelinated axon, Na+ channels are Answeralong the whole length of the axon.every 5 mm.concentrated at the nodes of Ranvier.less numerous at the nodes of Ranvier.0.5 pointsQuestion 12What is the predominant affect of stimulation of nicotinic-gated channels?Answer+stimulation due to outflow of K ions.inhibition due to outflow of K+ ionsstimulation due to influx of Na+ ionsinhibition due to influx of Cl- ions0.5 pointsQuestion 13What type of proteins are present at chemical synapses to ensure the close proximity ofthe presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes?Answerconnexinsmyelinterminal boutonscell adhesion molecules (CAMs)0.5 pointsQuestion 14Action potentials would be conducted most rapidly byAnswera 10 mm diameter myelinated axon.a 10 mm diameter unmyelinated axon.a 40 mm diameter myelinated axon.a 40 mm diameter unmyelinated axon.0.5 pointsQuestion 15What type of proteins are present in gap junctions that form water-filled channelsbetween neurons?Answerconnexonsmyelinterminal boutonscell adhesion molecules (CAMs)0.5 pointsQuestion 16Which division of the nervous system innervates involuntary effectors?Answer central nervous systemsomatic nervous systemautonomic nervous systemassociative nervous system0.5 pointsQuestion 17Cholinergic fibers use ____ as the neurotransmitter.Answernorepinephrineacetylcholinedopamineserotonin0.5 pointsQuestion 18The mechanism that allows many Na+ ions to move into the axon isAnswernegative feedback.positive feedback.equilibrium feedback.None of the choices are correct.0.5 pointsQuestion 19The disease ______________ is characterized by destruction of CNS myelin sheathsand the formation of hardened scars.AnswerParkinson’sAlzheimer’smultiple sclerosis.myasthenia gravis0.5 pointsQuestion 20What medication acts by increasing the action of nitric oxide as a treatment for erectiledysfunction?AnswerViagramarijuanaProzacnaloxone0.5 pointsQuestion 21Chemicals that stimulate action potentials in postsynaptic cells are calledAnswer hormones.enzymes.neurotransmitters.neurotrophins.0.5 pointsQuestion 22Local anesthetics block conduction of action potentials in sensory neurons byAnswerinhibiting the release of acetylcholine.binding to potassium channels.binding to sodium channels.binding to calcium channels.0.5 pointsQuestion 23Neuroleptics, which are used to treat schizophrenia, areAnswerdopamine agonists.ACh antagonists.dopamine antagonists.glutamate agonists.0.5 pointsQuestion 24Postsynaptic inhibition is caused byAcetylcholineGABAglycineBoth GABA and glycine0.5 pointsQuestion 25What causes presynaptic inhibition?Answer2+inactivation of Ca channelsa second neuron causes a reduction in neurotransmitter release from another neuronaxoaxonic synapsesAll of the choices are correct.0.5 pointsQuestion 26The capacity of synapses for alteration at the molecular level is termedAnswersynaptic modulation.synaptic alteration.synaptic capacitance. synaptic plasticity.0.5 pointsQuestion 27Endocannabinoids are retrograde neurotransmitters, meaning they areAnswerreleased from presynaptic neurons and diffuse to the postsynaptic neuron.released from postsynaptic neurons and diffuse to the presynaptic neuron.released from presynaptic neurons and diffuse back to the presynaptic cell body.None of the choices are correct.0.5 pointsQuestion 28The brain and spinal cord comprise theAnswercentral nervous system.peripheral nervous system.peripheral ganglia.spinal nerves.0.5 pointsQuestion 29What action produces an IPSP on the postsynaptic membrane?Answerinflux of Na+ ionsopening of Ca2+ channels into the neuronoutflow of K+ ionsopening of Cl- channels into the neuron0.5 pointsQuestion 30Which of the following is NOT true of dendrites?Answertransmits action potentials toward the cell bodyare thin extensions of the cell bodytransmit graded electrochemical impulses toward the cell bodycontain receptive areas