Solved by a verified expert:True / False Questions1. Sensory receptors sense only stimuli external to the body, such as light, sound waves, smell, and touch.2. Most somesthetic signals in the right side of the body reach the cerebral cortex in the contralateral primary somesthetic area.3. Olfaction results from the stimulation of chemoreceptors.4. Taste signals travel from the tongue through the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves.5. The ossicles belong to the middle ear.6. The vestibule contains organs of hearing and equilibrium.7. The middle ear consists of a fluid-filled chamber.8. The cornea belongs to the tunica fibrosa (fibrous layer) of the eyeball.9. Light falling on the retina is absorbed by rhodopsin and photopsin in the pigment epithelium.10. Rods secrete glutamate from the base of the cell when exposed to light.11. Vitamin A is necessary for the synthesis of rhodopsin.Multiple Choice Questions12. The initial effect of a stimulus on a sensory receptor is a local electrical change specifically called a(an) __________.A. action potentialB. graded potentialC. local potentialD. sensory potentialE. receptor potential13. What is a sensation?A. A response of a sensory receptorB. A response of a sensory organC. A subjective awareness of a stimulusD. An unconscious response to a stimulusE. A response to any conscious stimulus14. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid pH are detected by __________.A. thermoreceptorsB. chemoreceptorsC. nociceptorsD. mechanoreceptorsE. proprioceptors15. Changes in blood pressure are detected by __________ in certain arteries.A. mechanoreceptorsB. chemoreceptorsC. proprioceptorsD. nociceptorsE. thermoreceptors16. Which organ does not have nociceptors?A. BrainB. HeartC. KidneyD. LiverE. Stomach17. Pain, heat, and cold are detected by __________.A. tactile (Meissner) discsB. tactile corpusclesC. lamellar (Pacinian) corpusclesD. free nerve endingsE. end (Krause) bulbs18. Which of the following is not an analgesic (pain reliever) found naturally in the central nervous system?A. Endogenous opioidB. DynorphinC. EnkephalinsD. EndorphinsE. Bradykinin19. Where do most second-order somesthetic neurons synapse with third-order neurons?A. MidbrainB. ThalamusC. Spinothalamic tractD. HypothalamusE. Postcentral gyrus20. In a taste bud, which cell produces a receptor potential?A. Taste hairsB. Sensory nerve fibersC. Supporting cellsD. basal cellsE. Gustatory cells21. Which of the following structures is visible to the naked eye?A. Lingual papillaB. Taste (gustatory) cellC. Taste hairD. Taste budE. Taste pore22. Which taste sensation is produced by amino acids such as aspartic acid and glutamic acid?A. SaltyB. UmamiC. BitterD. SweetE. Sour23. What do pheromones stimulate?A. Hair cellsB. Supporting cellsC. Taste cellsD. Olfactory cellsE. Olfactory glands24. Where is the primary olfactory cortex located?A. Parietal lobeB. InsulaC. Occipital lobeD. Frontal lobeE. Temporal lobe25. What is the only sense in which signals can reach the cerebral cortex without passing first through the thalamus?A. TouchB. SmellC. TasteD. VisionE. Equilibrium26. The human ear can detect what frequency of vibrations?A. 5 to 20 HzB. 10 to 10,000 HzC. 20 to 20,000 HzD. 5 to 200,000 HzE. 100 to 100,000 Hz27. Which of the following structures belong to the inner ear?A. Tympanic membraneB. HelixC. IncusD. Semicircular ductE. Tensor tympani muscle28. Which of the following structures houses the spiral organ?A. CochleaB. VestibuleC. Semicircular ductD. StapesE. Tympanic cavity29. The incus articulates with which bone(s)?A. Malleus and stapesB. MalleusC. StapesD. Malleus, stapes, and temporalE. Malleus, stapes, and tympanic30. The spiral organ is housed within which of the following structures?A. Scala vestibuliB. Scala tympaniC. Cochlear ductD. Anterior semicircular ductE. Vestibule31. Which structure allows upper respiratory infections to spread from the throat to the tympanic cavity?A. Oval windowB. Cochlear ductC. Auditory canalD. Auditory (Eustachian) tubeE. Tympanic cavity32. Stimuli produced by sound waves reach the brain following which pathway?A. Cochlear duct ? spiral organ ? ossicles ? oval window ? auditory canal ? tympanic membrane ? fibers of cochlear nerveB. Auditory canal ? tympanic membrane ? oval window ? cochlear duct ? ossicles ? spiral organ ? fibers of cochlear nerveC. Cochlear duct ? oval window ? auditory canal ? tympanic membrane ? ossicles ? spiral organ ? fibers of cochlear nerveD. Tympanic membrane ? auditory canal ? ossicles ? oval window ? cochlear duct ? spiral organ ? fibers of cochlear nerveE. Auditory canal ? tympanic membrane ? ossicles ? oval window ? cochlear duct ? spiral organ ? fibers of cochlear nerve33. Which of these is most vulnerable to irreversible damage caused by a very loud noise?A. OssiclesB. Cochlear hair cellsC. Tympanic membraneD. Fibers of the cochlear nerveE. Tectorial membrane34. Each upward movement of the basilar causes the stereocilia of the inner hair cells to bend, opening __________ gates.A. K+B. Na+C. Ca2+D. Cl-E. Mg2+35. A 100 dB sound (loud) of 150 Hz (low pitch) would cause which of the following to occur?A. The tectorial membrane to vibrate slightly near its distal endB. The tectorial membrane to vibrate vigorously near its proximal endC. The basilar membrane to vibrate slightly near its proximal endD. The basilar membrane to vibrate vigorously near its distal endE. The basilar membrane to vibrate slightly near its distal end36. When you spin while sitting in a swivel chair with your eyes closed, you can sense this movement by means of your __________.A. cochleaB. sacculeC. semicircular ductsD. utricleE. spiral organ (organ of Corti)37. When you travel in an elevator, what senses when the elevator is moving?A. The inner hair cells of the basilar membraneB. The outer hair cells of the basilar membraneC. The hair cells of the tectorial membraneD. The hair cells of the otolithic membrane of the macula utriculiE. The hair cells of the otolithic membrane of the macula sacculi38. What is the crista ampullaris associated with?A. Static equilibrium when standing stillB. Static acceleration in linear accelerationC. Dynamic equilibrium in angular accelerationD. Hearing high-pitch soundsE. Vision related to color39. Which of the following does not contribute to the sense of equilibrium?A. Otolithic membraneB. Semicircular canalsC. SacculeD. UtricleE. Vallate papillae40. What is the correct order of cells in the retina from back to front?A. Photoreceptor – bipolar – ganglionB. Ganglion – bipolar – photoreceptorC. Photoreceptor – ganglion – bipolarD. Ganglion – photoreceptor – bipolar41. Human vision is limited to wavelengths ranging from __________ nm.A. 4 to 70B. 40 to 700C. 400 to 700D. 400 to 7,000E. 4,000 to 7,00042. Which of the following is not considered an accessory structure of the eye?A. ConjunctivaB. PalpebraC. Lacrimal apparatusD. Superior obliqueE. Cornea43. Which of the following is not considered an optic component of the eye?A. Aqueous humorB. Vitreous bodyC. LensD. RetinaE. Cornea44. Nerve fibers from all regions of the retina converge on the __________ and exit the eye by way of the optic nerve.A. macula luteaB. optic discC. fovea centralisD. ora serrataE. lens45. When you view objects close to the eye, the eye makes an adjustment called __________.A. emmetropiaB. accommodationC. refractionD. myopiaE. diplopia46. Which cells are responsible for photopic (day) vision as well as trichromatic (color) vision?A. Bipolar cellsB. RodsC. ConesD. Ganglion cellsE. Pigment cells47. What are the only retinal cells that produce action potentials?A. RodsB. ConesC. Ganglion cellsD. Bipolar cellsE. Horizontal cells48. What are the first-order neurons in the visual pathway?A. Optic nerve fibersB. Rods and conesC. Ganglion cellsD. Bipolar cellsE. Amacrine cells49. Half of the fibers of each optic nerve decussate at the __________.A. superior colliculusB. optic chiasmC. lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamusD. optic foramenE. midbrain50. Adjustment to close-range vision involves all of the following except __________.A. activity of the extrinsic eye musclesB. change in the curvature of the lensC. constriction of the pupilD. ciliary muscle activityE. light adaptation51. Which of the following correctly describes the vestibular projection pathway to the brain?A. Vestibular nerve – vestibulocochlear nerve – vestibular nuclei – thalamus – cerebral cortexB. Vestibulocochlear nerve – vestibular nerve – vestibular nuclei – thalamus – cerebral cortexC. Vestibular nerve – vestibulocochlear nerve – thalamus – vestibular nuclei – cerebral cortexD. Vestibulocochlear nerve – vestibular nerve – thalamus – vestibular nuclei – cerebral cortex52. The three types of cones in the retina are differentiated from one another by what feature?A. The absorption peak of their photopsinB. The width of their outer segmentC. Whether they contain cis-retinal or trans-retinal or bothD. The number of discs in their outer segment