Solved by a verified expert:Print This PageLab 10Kingdom survey- Eubacteria,Protista, Fungi, Plantae, andAnimaliaIntroduction: Connecting Your LearningA previous lab discussed the basics of taxonomy and the kingdoms. This lab takes a closer look into fivekingdoms and identifies distinguishing characteristics of various organisms. The kingdoms studied in thelaboratory include Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.Resources and AssignmentsMultimediaResourcesKingdoms Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and AnimaliaRequiredAssignmentsLesson 13 Lab 10Student Supplied1 Celery stalkRequired MaterialsWater (approximately 8-12 oz.)Glass or cup (8 to 16 oz.)Food dye (blue or red)Knife Focusing Your LearningLab ObjectivesBy the end of this lab, you should be able to:1. Identify the shape and Gram stain reaction of bacteria.2. Identify select protistan species according to their distinguishing structures and appearance.3. Describe the structure of algae.4. Identify select fungi species’ according to their distinguishing characteristics.5. Distinguish between monocots and dicots with respect to the number of cotyledons, leaf venation,and arrangement of vascular tissue.6. Identify the parts of a twig.7. Identify the parts of a flower.8. Identify the type and venation of leaves.Background InformationBacteria are members of the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria and are prokaryotic organisms. Theyare quite common in the environment, important in industry, and only a few species are pathogenic(disease-causing).The bacteria classified in the Archaebacteria kingdom are "ancient" bacteria and are found in extremeenvironments. An example of archaebacteria includes the bacteria found in the geysers of Yellowstone.Click on image to enlarge.All other bacteria are included in the Eubacteria kingdom, and are considered the "true" bacteria.Bacteria are very small, most only one um (micrometer) in diameter, and cannot be viewed by the naked eye. To facilitate observation and aid in classification, most are observed when stained by a technique knownas the Gram stain. If they stain blue to violet, they are classified as Gram positive, and if they stain pink orred, they are classified as Gram negative.Gram NegativeClick on image to enlarge.Gram PositiveClick on image to enlarge.Bacteria occur in three shapes. Round bacteria are called coccus (cocci); oval or rod shaped bacteria arecalled bacillus (bacilli); and bacteria that are coil shaped are called spirillum (spirillus). Examples ofspherical, rod, and spiral bacteria are seen in the image, below. They also occur in several formations suchas single, pairs (diplo), chains, and clusters.Bacteria can be grown or cultured in liquid media or on a gel medium known as agar. Agar is an extract ofkelp (seaweed) that remains a colloid (that is, a pseudosolution) at 370C. Special nutrients or chemicals canbe added to the agar to facilitate growth, hinder growth, or to aid in identification. One such additive is bloodthat contains the nutrients that many bacteria require for metabolism. When a single bacterium is placed ona nutrient agar plate (petri dish), or slant (capped test tube), after several generations, a spot will appear.This spot is known as a colony.While some bacteria are pathogenic and cause diseases including pneumonia, foodborne illness, strepthroat, and urinary tract infections, there are many more beneficial bacteria than there are pathogenicbacteria. A number of bacteria play an important role in recycling materials in the environment. Somebacteria are decomposers: organisms that break down organic material and recycle it back into theenvironment so that other organisms can use the material. Because of their ability to decompose matter,bacteria play a vital role in sewage treatment, where they break down organic material and also inbioremediation applications like treating water that has been contaminated with petroleum materials like oilfrom oil spills. Finally, the human body contains many important bacteria that serve a variety of functionsincluding food decomposition and the production of vitamins including vitamin K.Protists (Prototistans) which are included in the kingdom Protista, are single-celled eukaryotic organisms;many found in aquatic environments. Most protozoans eat bacteria or other protozoans and some arepathogenic to humans. For example, Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protist found in water contaminated withanimal feces that causes severe diarrhea and abdominal cramping in humans. Another example of aflagellate is Euglena sp., which is a notable species because it can carry out photosynthesis and has aneyespot near the base of its single flagellum. Click on image to enlarge.Another flagellated protist that produces disease in humans is Trypanosomoa brucei gambiense, whichcauses sleeping sickness. Other protozoans that cause disease in humans include Entamoeba histolytica(causative agent of amoebic dysentery), Plasmodium vivax (causative agent of malaria), and Trichomonasvaginalis (causative agent of some urinary tract infections). Termites would be unable to consume cellulose(found in plants) if it were not for the presence of several flagellates in their intestinal tracts. Theseflagellates are quite varied in shape, but all possess numerous flagella.Diatoms are also members of the kingdom Protista and possess an intricate skeleton that contains silica(glass). When they die, their remaining skeletons serve as a natural filter (commonly used in swimmingpools) and are frequently used as a natural non-toxic pesticide – known as diatomaceous earth. The whitecliffs in Dover, England are due to diatomaceous earth. Diatoms are also very important in the aquatic foodchain.Click on image to enlarge.Algae are photosynthetic protists. Different groups possess various color pigments. The green algae may beunicellular or multicellular. Chlamydomonas is a unicellular, motile colonial green algae. Volvox (seen in theimage, below) is a colony of hundreds of haploid algal cells. Spirogyra is multicellular green algae.Click on image to enlarge.Organisms classified under the kingdom Fungi are multicellular, heterotrophic, eukaryotic organisms thatlack chlorophyll. The main body of the organism consists of threadlike structures called hyphae that branchin various directions, forming a network called a mycelium which serves as the feeding structure for thefungus. The mycelium are usually located underground and can stretch far distances. The mycelium alsoserves as the basis from which aerial spore-bearing structures form. Below is an image of the mycelium of afungus. Click on image to enlarge.Example fungi include yeast, which resemble bacteria, and molds, which yield a fuzzy-like growth. Fungi areidentified by the type and shape of spores produced. Spores are haploid structures employed in fungalreproduction. The spores are often the part of the organism that is colored and visible. Asexual spores areproduced in two different structures that are extensions of the hyphae. The first type of spore is called aconidiospore or conidium (plural: conidia), which is a unicellular or multicellular spore that is notenclosed in a sac. Aspergillus and Penicillium produce conidia, as seen in the image, below.Click on image to enlarge.The second type of asexual spore is called a sporangiospore, which is formed within a sporangium or sac atthe end of an aerial hypha that is called a sporangiophore. Rhizopus is an example of fungi that producesporangiospores, as seen in the image below.Click on image to enlarge.Fungi are important organisms because they play an integral part of the Earth’s ecosystem. Fungi decomposematter, recycling and returning nutrients needed to nourish soil and allow plants to grow. Withoutdecomposers, the nutrients taken in by plants and animals would be removed from the soil and not returned.Fungi are used in several commercial applications; humans consume a variety of mushrooms as food; yeastsare used in baking and fermentation (e.g., wine and beer), and fungi are used in the production of many foodproducts, including some cheeses, and some fungi produce antibiotics.Organisms classified under the kingdom Plantae are multicellular organisms that have specialized vasculartissue to conduct solutions throughout the plant. Plants are grouped into two groups based on the number offirst leaves found on the embryo. These embryonic leaves are called seed leaves or cotyledons. Monocots have one seed leaf, parallel venation (to be described in additional detail in the lab), and complexarrangement of vascular bundles. In comparison, dicots have two seed leaves, branched venation, andvascular bundles arranged in a ring, as seen in the image below. Note that the image includes the termeudicots; plants that are a subset of the dicots and they make up the majority of flowering plants.Click on image to enlarge.The vascular tissue found in plants includes xylem, which has thick walls, transports water upward andthroughout the plant from the roots to the leaves, and is found in the middle of the vascular bundle. Incomparison, phloem has a thin wall, transports nutrients downward from the leaves to the roots, and isfound on the outer part of the vascular bundle. The cambium consists of cells between the xylem andphloem. The inner part of the stem that is often hollow is known as the pith. The vascular tissues arearranged in bundles located at the periphery of the stem in dicots and scattered throughout the stem inmonocots, as seen in the image below (note that in the image, the dicots are called eudicots; eudicots are amember of the dicot category of plants and comprise the majority of flowering plants which are calledangiosperms).Click on image to enlarge.When a seed (immature embryo) germinates, it produces a primary root, which penetrates the soil. As aseed grows, it occurs in tissues called meristems, which contain undifferentiated cells that divide, producingadditional cells. Meristems found at the tips of roots and shoots are called apical meristems. Growth thatoccurs in apical meristems allows plants to grow in length, a process called primary growth. The root tip(terminal end) contains a protective root cap layer. Above the cap is the zone of cell division where theroot undergoes rapid growth. As the newly produced cells push up the existing cells, they elongate (zone ofelongation). The top layer of the root finds the zone of maturation where the root is producing root hairs– extensions of the outer cells. Root hairs are essential for increasing the surface area to volume ratio of theplant. The growth zones in a typical plant root are seen in the illustrations below. The illustration to the left isa root and the image to the right is a micrograph of the end of a root. Note the location of the apicalmeristem, leaves, and axillary bud meristems. Click on image to enlarge.Click on image to enlarge.The age of a woody tree can be determined by the number of growth rings in the stem/trunk. Each year thexylem and phloem split and separate into an annual ring. The older structures are termed secondary, and thenew is called primary. The pith is found in the center of the stem. It is surrounded by primary xylem, whichin turn is surrounded by annual rings of secondary xylem. These rings of secondary xylem are the structuresthat are counted to determine the age of the tree. Outside the last (oldest) secondary xylem is the cambium,then the primary phloem. The secondary phloem is found around the cambium, then the primary phloem. Toprotect these delicate tissues, the primary phloem is protected by the cork cambium. The outer part of thecork cambium has dead cells that produce cork or bark to "waterproof" the tree. The secondary growth of aeudicot stem is illustrated in the image below.Click on image to enlarge.Young branches of woody plants are called twigs. The bud at the tip end is called the terminal bud. Alongthe sides of the twig is where the lateral buds can be found. These develop if the terminal bud is damaged.Just below each bud is a leaf scar where an old leaf was once attached. The ring of bud scale scars is wherethe terminal bud was in the past year(s). Click on image to enlarge.The leaf is a flat blade of a stalk (petiole). Vascular tissue enters the petiole and then travels down themidrib vein and then may branch to other leaf veins. If a leaf has just one blade, it is a simple leaf; if it hasmore than one blade, it is a compound leaf. The direction of the veins is called venation. Leaves may haveparallel venation where each vein runs parallel out of the base to the tip of the leaf. If there is just onemain vein with all the smaller veins perpendicular to it and parallel to each other, the leaf venation is termedpinnate (like a feather). If several main veins branch from the petiole and these again branch out, the leaf issaid to have palmate venation.Angiosperms are flowering plants that produce a reproductive structure called a flower. A complete flowerhas both male and female parts. The sepals are the small green petals that cover the flower as a bud andserve as a base support for the open flower. The petals are the broad leaf-like parts on the outer part of theflower. Around the center there are stamens, which are the male parts of the flower. They usually end in apad-like structure called the anther that is attached to the filament. In the center is the female structureknown as the carpal, which at the base, contains the ovaries and the sticky stigma on top.Click on image to enlarge.Animalia is the largest kingdom in biology. There are an estimated 9 to 10 million species of animals on thisplanet. Everything from nematodes to humans belongs to this kingdom, all sharing some commoncharacteristics: 1. They are heterotrophic. That is, they do not have the ability to produce their own food.2. They are multicellular.3. Their cells lack cell walls.4. They tend to reproduce sexually.5. They have mobile stages.6. They react quickly to their environment.One of the ways that animals are classified is by their body plan.This lab focuses on the identification of different types of bacteria, protists, fungi, and plants.Procedures1. Utilize the Virtual Microscope to view stained bacterial smears. Be sure to view the slide under allavailable levels of magnification and note the magnification for the images drawn. Using a lab notebookor other paper, draw an image of each bacterium, noting the magnification, name, shape, and Gramstain reaction.bacillispirillacocciAs a review, in using the virtual microscope, please complete the following steps in order. Failure toproperly perform the steps in the following order will result in failure to complete subsequent steps.Drag and drop a slide onto the microscope.Click on the stage clip knob on the left of the microscope stage.Adjust the interpupillary distance. First click on the title "interpupillary distance." Next,place the pointer on the images and adjust them until the two images are observed as oneimage.Adjust the slide position. Place the pointer on the positioner and adjust the slide until aclear view of the specimen is observed.Adjust the iris diaphragm until a comfortable light is obtained.Adjust the diopter until a clear image is obtained. Use the line on the slide and move it upor down.Adjust the course magnification. Use the line and move it up or down until a clear image isobtained.Adjust the fine magnification. Use the line and move it up or down until a clear image isobtained.Adjust the magnification by clicking on the objective numbers on the microscope.2. Utilize the VIRTUAL MICROSCOPE to view a flagellated protist called Euglena. Be sure to view the slideunder all available levels of magnification and note the magnification for the images drawn. Draw apicture of Euglena, identifying the flagella. 3. Utilize the VIRTUAL MICROSCOPE to view unicellular and colonial algae. View the slide of diatomaceousearth (a diatom) and Volvox (colonial green algae). Draw an image of each organism and describe thedistinguishing characteristics of each. Be sure to view the slide under all available levels ofmagnification and note the magnification for the images drawn. Identify the daughter colonies ofVolvox (these are round spheres located within larger spheres) as well as the flagellated cells (seen assmall green dots within each Volvox ball).4. Utilize the VIRTUAL MICROSCOPE to view three molds (Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Aspergillus). Drawan image of each, labeling all distinguishing characteristics, including the sporangiospores of Rhizopus,and the conidia of Aspergillus, and Penicillium. Be sure to view the slide under all available levels ofmagnification and note the magnification for the images drawn.5. Utilize the VIRTUAL MICROSCOPE to view the following three algae: Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, andVolvox. Draw an image of each alga labeling any distinguishing characteristics, including thechloroplasts of Spirogyra, and the daughter colonies of Volvox and the chloroplast, eye, and twoflagella found on chlamydomonas. Be sure to view the slide under all available levels of magnificationand note the magnification for the images drawn.6. View the longitudinal cross sections of a dicot and monocot plant stem seen below. Print out the image,or draw a picture of the cross sections, labeling the epidermis, pith, and vascular bundles.Click on image to enlarge.View the image below, detailing primary growth in a root. Print out the image, or draw the image, andlabel the root hairs, cortex, zone of differentiation, zone of elongation, zone of cell division, and rootcap.Click on image to enlarge.7. Identify structures on a common twig:A. Observe the image of a twig and determine the location of:a. terminal bud b. lateral budsc. ring scars8. Observe water transport in a celery stalk:A. Obtain a fresh stalk of celery.B. Hold the celery under water and cut off the end (not the end with the leaves).C. Fill a tall glass with water.D. Add red or blue food coloring to the water. Make sure the water is a deep color.E. Place the celery in the colored water.F. Observe the appearance of the stalk and leaves each day.G. Record results daily for one week.9. View the parts of a flower:A. Identify the various parts of a flower on the flower model.B. Build the flower using these parts.10. Identify leaf type and venation:A. Identify each of the sample leaves as simple or compound.B. Identify the venation of each sample leaf.11. Utilize the VIRTUAL MICROSCOPE to view the following types of animal cells:cheekbonebloodlungA. Draw an image of each cell and include descriptions of the cell. For the cheek cell, at the400 magnification, identify the cell boundary and nucleus (dark pink center) of the cells.For the bone cells, identify the cells called osteocytes, seen as brown structures locatedwithin the concentric rings of the calcified bone. For the blood cells, identify the red bloodcells and white blood cells. The red blood cells are the smaller, pink spheres, and the whiteblood cells are the larger spheres with purple centers. Finally, for the lung tissue, identifyindividual cells. Notice that the cells appear flat, which make them ideal for gas exchange.Be sure to view the slide under all available levels of magnification and note themagnification for the images drawn.Assessing Your LearningCompose answers to the questions below in Microsoft Word and save the file as a backup copy in the eventthat a technical problem is encountered while attempting to submit the assignment. Copy the answers fromMicrosoft Word by simultaneously holding down the Ctrl and A keys to select the text, and then simultaneously holding down the Ctrl and C keys to copy it. Then, click on the link below to open up theonline submit form for the laboratory. Paste the answers into the online dialog box by inserting the cursor inthe submit box and simultaneously holding down the Ctrl and V keys. The answers should now appear in thebox. Review the work to make sure that all questions have been completely answered and then click on theSubmit button at the bottom of the page.LAB 101. Identify the shape and Gram reaction of the following bacterium. (4 points)Click on image to enlarge.2. Name three bacteria (scientific names) and the diseases they cause in humans. (6 points)a. Name and diseaseb. Name and diseasec. Name and disease3. Are members of the kingdom Eubacteria single-celled or multicellular? (2 points)4. State two beneficial uses of bacteria. (4 points)a.b.5. Name three protista (scientific names) and the diseases they cause in humans. (6 points)a. Name and diseaseb. Name and diseasec. Name and disease6. Do all members of the kingdom Protista possess flagella? Explain briefly. (4 points)7. Were the diatoms observed under the virtual microscope alive or dead? (2 points)8. State three industrial uses of Fungi. (6 points)a.b.c.9. What are the haploid reproductive structures of Fungi called? (1 point)10. a. What is the name of the reproductive structure observed below that is found in some Fungi? (2 points)b. Give an example of a fungal species that uses this reproductive structure. (2 points) Click on image to enlarge.11. Identify the following components on the images below: plant type (monocot or dicot), pith, epidermis,cortex, and vascular bundles. (6 points)Click on image to enlarge.A.B.C.D.E.F.12. View the image below of primary growth of a root. Identify each structure indicated below with a letter.(6 points)Click on image to enlarge.A.B.C. D.E.F.13. What did the celery look like on each of the following days? (6 points)a. Day 1b. Day 3c. Day 714. What is the name for the type of plants that use flowers as their reproductive structure? (2 points)15. Using the image below, identify each structure of the flower as indicated. (5 points)Click on image to enlarge.16. What type of venation do most monocots have? (2 points)17. Identify the venation of the plant leaf seen below. (4 points)18. Name a plant root and a plant stem often consumed. (2 points)a. Rootb. Stem19. List the distinguishing characteristics of the Animalia kingdom. (6 points)a. b.c.d.e.f.20. Describe one way that animals are classified. (2 points)21. (Application) How might the information gained from this lab pertaining to the various kingdoms beuseful to the student, or how can the student apply this knowledge to everyday life as a non-scientist? Theapplication paragraph will be graded according to the rubric below. (20 points)EXCELLENTCRITICALTHINKINGANDAPPLICATIONOFINFORMATION(20 points)VERYGOODGOODFAIRNEEDSIMPROVEMENT18-2016-1714-1512-13Below 12Have You Met The Objectives For This Lesson?Copyright © 2015 Rio Salado College. All Rights Reserved.