Solved by a verified expert:Neurobiology – Biology 362 – Knowledge Inventory (Quiz) #7INSTRUCTIONS: Please read and refer to readings designated for this week to answer the questions below.Knowledge Inventory (Quiz) #7 covers all required reading and media.There are 20 Multiple Choice questions.ANSWER in the My Tools/Quizzes and Exams for item Knowledge Inventory Seven. Submit only theletter answers by the due date and time.For Questions 1-3, reference weekly reading NervousSystemUnit14_AP_OLI, Module 54 pp. 411-416and Module 56 pp. 456-457 (under Course Content/Nervous System Chapters).Q1. Which arrangement described below is correct?A. Motor and sympathetic nervous system axons exit the spinal cord gray matter as anterior nerve roots.B. Sympathetic nervous system axons enter the spinal cord through dorsal root systemsC. Motor and sensory axons exit the spinal cord gray matter as anterior nerve roots.D. Sensory axons enter the spinal cord through the anterior nerve roots.E. Neurons from lateral horn of the spinal cord leave through anterior nerve roots to innervate skeletal muscle.Q2. __________ contain the neurons of the sympathetic nervous system and is found at the___________ and __________ levels/regions of the spinal cord.A. Ventral (anterior) horn; sacral; cervicalB. Dorsal (posterior) horn; thoracic; lumbarC. Lateral horn; thoracic; lumbarD. Lateral horn; sacral; cervicalE. Both A and BQ3. Which of the following is not an ascending spinal tract?A. anterior spinocerebellarB. spinoreticularC. gracile fasciculusD. lateral vestibulospinalE. cuneate fasciculusFor Questions 4-5, reference Comparing the organization of gray and white matter in the spinal cord for sections throughcervical level and sacral level, which of the following statements is INCORRECT?A. Cervical level has relatively more white matter than sacral level.B. Sacral level is more circular than cervical level.C. Cervical level gray matter in the dorsal horn is long and slender compared with broader, shorter gray atsacral level.D. Cervical level gray matter is H-shaped while sacral level gray matter is a flattened, U- or W-shape.E. Cervical level gray matter exhibits an enlargement in the ventral horn.Q5. The ___________ vertebra is named for a Titan from Greek mythology who carried the weight ofEarth on his shoulders.A. C1B. C2C. C4D. C5E. C7 For Questions 6, reference A withdrawal reflex relies on the simultaneous activation of and ____________.A. flexor muscles; extensor musclesB. sensory neurons; motor neuronsC. interneurons; alpha motor neuronsD. sensory receptor; skeletal muscleFor Questions 7-11, reference weekly reading BIOL 362 Course Module Four (under Course Content/Course Modules)Q7. The activation of parasympathetic nervous system division of the autonomic nervous systemscauses a(n) in calcium and potassium currents in cardiac muscles.A. increaseB. decreaseQ8. A ___________ is defined as a single motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates.A. myosinB. actinC. sarcomereD. sarcoplasmic reticulumE. motor unitQ9. In this type of reflex, a muscle on one side of the body will extend, compensating for the withdrawnlimb on the other side of the body.A. gated reflexB. central pattern generatorC. knee-jerk reflexD. crossed-extensor reflexE. monosynaptic reflexQ10. Cortical neurons involved with motor output from the CNS can be found in all of the followingareas EXCEPT ____________.A. premotor cortexB. primary motor cortexC. precentral gyrusD. supplementary areasE. prefrontal association areasQ11. _______________ receives neural feedback about body, joint, and head position, refines motoroutput, and also plays a role in cognitive function.A. CerebellumB. Basal gangliaC. ThalamusD. Second-order neurons in the spinal cordE. Primary motor cortexFor Questions 12-13, reference weekly reading _______________ of cerebral cortex includes the premotor cortex and supplementary motorcortex.A. Area 2B. Area 6C. Area 5 D. Area 4E. Area 3Q13. _______________ describes a clinical situation in which a patient tries to touch an object but hasdelayed onset of hand movement and ultimately reaches beyond the target location.A. Parkinson’s diseaseB. Huntington’s choreaC. cerebellar syndromeD. hyperkinesiaE. apraxiaFor Questions 14-18, reference weekly reading NervousSystem_OS Chapter 16 (under Course Content/Nervous System Chapters)Q14. _____________ is bleeding into the brain due to a damaged blood vessel.A. HypovolemiaB. Hemorrhagic strokeC. EmbolusD. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosisE. AphasiaQ15. Which area of cerebral cortex is responsible for the ability to coordinate visual and motorfunction such as needed to reach and pick up a glass of water?A. Posterior parietal cortexB. Area 22C. HippocampusD. Area 39E. Prefrontal cortexQ16. H.M. was a patient who maintained short-term memory capacity but who lost the ability to formnew memories, i.e. to consolidate memory into long-term storage. This deficit was caused by______________.A. seizures due to epilepsyB. bilateral surgical removal of both hippocampi in the temporal lobesC. unilateral surgical removal of one hippocampus in the left temporal lobeD. bilateral surgical removal of prefrontal corticesE. hemorrhagic strokeQ17. Short-term (working, active) memory is localized to _____________.A. temporal lobeB. hippocampusC. prefrontal lobe of cerebral cortexD. Area 2E. Wernicke’s areaQ18. A patient experiences ____________ when speech production is compromised.A. Wernicke’s aphasiaB. expressive aphasiaC. receptive aphasiaD. conduction aphasiaFor Questions 19-20, reference weekly reading ____________ is involved in phonological and articulatory processing of words.A. Angular gyrus B. Precentral gyrusC. Supramarginal gyrusD. Temporal lobeE. Lateral sulcusQ20. Language acquisition in humans is based on human capacity for ___________.A. neural plasticity in brainB. multiple areas devoted to languageC. integration across the sensesD. abstraction and applying rules of syntaxE. integration of emotions into communications