Solved by a verified expert:LAB 19  FUNGI Experiment 1: Growing and
Observing Zygomycota (Bread Mold)
Bread mold will generally ruin a day
when you are looking forward to a sandwich, but will make it much easier to
observe a live fungus. In this lab you will be cultivating the common bread
mold. Any type of bread can be used, but fresh bakery bread will likely grow
more colorful species since it does not contain the preservatives that many
processed varieties do.

Permanent Marker
Spray Bottle Lid and Empty Bottle
2 Resealable Bags
RhizopusDigital Slide Images

*2 Pieces of White Bread
* You Must Provide


Use the permanent marker to label each of the two resealable bags as
“Wet” or “Dry”.
Take one slice of bread and, spray it with water until moist. Avoid
soaking the bread.
Place the moistened bread in the resealable bag labeled “Wet” and
Then, place the second piece of bread in the resealable bag labeled
“Dry” and seal.
Create a hypothesis regarding how the water will affect the bread
over time. Be sure to address which piece of bread you think will host
more growth, and why. Include your hypothesis in Post-Lab Question 1.
Incubate the bags for 3 – 7 days (depending on how fresh the bread
is) in a dark, warm spot.
Examine the bread once mold starts growing.
Examine the digital slide pictures of Rhizopus(Figure 10) and
identify the structures.

Figure 10:Rhizopus digital slide pictures; 100X (above left),
400X (above right).

Figure 10 (continued):1000X

Post-Lab Questions

Include your hypothesis from Step 5 here.

What structures did you see in the bread mold?

Why was it important to moisten the bread before sealing it in the
resealable bag?

What type of control
(positive or negative) did the dry bread provide? Explain why.

Is the bread mold
reproducing sexually or asexually? How could you determine this?

What would you expect to find if you left the bread for six months?

Were multi-nucleated hyphae
prevalent when looking at theRhizopusslide? How
do you know?
Experiment 2: Observing Ascomycota
Yeast is a commercially important
member of the Fungi Kingdom. It leavens bread and produces beer and wine. Yeast
is unique because it is unicellular and reproduces by mitosis and budding.

Digital Slide Images
PezizaDigital Slide Images


View the digital slide image of yeast (Figure 11). Locate the budding
cells and label what you see in the space below. Using the slide as a
reference, draw a budding yeast cell and include important structures
(ascus, ascospore) on your picture.
View the digital slide image of Peziza(Figure 12). Identify
the asocarp, asci, ascospores, and sterile hyphae.

Figure 11:Yeast 1000X; field 1 (left) and field 2

Figure 12:Digital slide images of Peziza; 100X
(above left), 400X (above right); 1000X (below)

Post-Lab Questions

Compare yeast to thePezizaslide. Identify
at least one difference, and one similarity.

How many ascospores are in each ascus of the yeast?

Are the ascospores of thePezizainside or
outside of the asci?
**********************************************************************Lab 23  Invertebrates and VertebratesExperiment 1: Symmetry in
Common Objects
Symmetry can be seen in everyday
objects similar to that of the symmetry seen in organisms.

Images of Common Lab Equipment


Review the objects listed below (many of these can also be found in your
lab kit).
Indicate the type of symmetry each item displays next to the image in
the Post-Lab Questions section.
Hint: It is helpful to draw lines of symmetry over the objects and
observe objects from different angles.
For each item, explain why you chose the type of symmetry you did.

Post-Lab Questions

Identify the type of symmetry displayed for each item. Then, indicate
how you came to your conclusion:

Petri Dish:


Test Tube Rack:

Wash Bottle with Curved Straw:

Graduated Cylinder: