Solved by a verified expert:Introduction to GeneticsIntroduce yourself to the virtual Genetics labroom to discover how pea plants displayMendelian inheritance patterns.Lab Bench UsedGregor Mendel’s meticulous work with pea plants allowed him to discover patterns ofinheritance in sexually reproducing organisms. In this introductory virtual labactivity, you can simulate some of Mendels crosses and data analyses.Enter the Virtual Bio Lab and select the title of this lab activity from the Hereditymenu on the whiteboard. You will be taken to the virtual Genetics lab room.Part A: The Virtual Genetics Lab RoomThe virtual Genetics lab room lets you perform virtual crosses between males andfemales of a variety of model species to determine how different traits are inherited.By default, the pea plant lab environment will appear. In some activities you may beworking with human traits, in which case the settings will look like a physiciansoffice. When working with other animal species, the lab will again look different.First GenerationSelect Pea Plant from the Species Selector. In the box on the lower left part of yourscreen labeled Experiment Setup, select Seed Shape as the trait to explore.The Genetics lab lets you set each parents genotype for the selected trait and thenperform an unlimited number of crosses to determine how a particular trait is passedon to the next generation. The simulation limits the number of offspring per cross to arealistic number for the species in question, however. In the lower left corner of theExperiment Setup box, set Number of Offspring to 10.Now, set one parental pea plants genotype as homozygous for Wrinkled andthe others genotype as heterozygous. To set a genotype, pull down on each of thedropdown menus below a given parent.Next, click the Cross button. The results of your crosses will be displayed in theResults boxes to the right of the experiment setup screen. Under the headingsParents and F1 Offspring, you will see the individuals listed using names such asMF1, MF2, and so on. (MF1 means male-female number 1the first offspring,which has both male and female reproductive organs.) To check the phenotypes of anindividual offspring, roll over any of the offspring names. In the window thatappears, the phenotype of the offspring is shown in the first of three boxes anddescribed to the left. The phenotypes of the parents are shown in the other two boxes.Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.Virtual LabBio1HeredityIntroduct toGeneticsion Name ________________________________ Class _______ Date _________________In the By Generation results panel, you will find the proportional breakdown of thephenotypes displayed by the first (F1) generation of ten offspring. The values given atthe far right side of the horizontal bar graphs (Round and Wrinkled) tell youwhat proportions of that generation have a particular phenotype. For example, if 0.70of offspring are wrinkled, that means 70% are wrinkled.1. In data table below, write the proportions of the two phenotypes as displayed bythe first ten offspring. Then, click the Cross button again, to simulate theproduction of 10 more offspring. Record the new phenotype proportions (for 20offspring) in the next row. Repeat this process until the parents have produced 100offspring.Results of CrossWhen F1 generationconsists ofProportion with round seedphenotype isProportion with wrinkledseed phenotype is10 offspring20 offspring30 offspring40 offspring50 offspring60 offspring70 offspring80 offspring90 offspring100 offspringCopyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.Virtual LabBio2HeredityIntroduct toGeneticsion Name ________________________________ Class _______ Date _________________2. What happened to the proportions of the two phenotypes as the F1 generationgrew from 10 to 100 offspring? Why?_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. If Mendel had only looked at a single cross that produced ten offspring todetermine the pattern of inheritance of seed shape in pea plants, what might hehave inferred?_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4. How can two parents with only one round allele between themonly 1 out of 4allelesproduce an F1 generation in which 50% of individuals have round seeds?_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Next GenerationIn the lower middle of the Experiment Setup box, click Next Generation. SelectManual Crosses. You will now be able to choose parents for the next generation(F2) in the dropdown menus under Parent 1 and Parent 2. You can choose whichF1 offspring to use as parents by rolling over the list of the F 1 offspring in theResults box in the middle of the screen. Note which F1 offspring are wrinkled, thenchoose two of those names from the menus under Parent 1 and Parent 2 to pairthem up them for mating.5. Click the Cross button a few times to produce the F 2 generation. What are theresults? Do the results support the idea that pea plant seed shape has adominant/recessive pattern of inheritance? Explain your reasoning.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.Virtual LabBio3HeredityIntroduct toGeneticsion Name ________________________________ Class _______ Date __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Part B: Pod ShapeClick the Reset button in the lower right corner of the Experiment Setup box.Keeping pea plants as the subject, select Pod Shape as the trait you will investigatenext. Cross a parent that is homozygous for Constricted pod shape with aheterozygote. Once again, repeat the cross until the parent plants have produced 100offspring.6. Look at the results of your crosses. Does it appear that pod shape is adominant/recessive trait? If so, which allele is dominant, and which is recessive?_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________7. If you were a pea farmer and you had to produce both the constricted and theinflated varieties of peas to satisfy the market, how would you go about ensuringthat your plants would produce adequate amounts of both types? (Hint: Thinkabout what would happen if pea plants were allowed to cross-pollinate.)__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.Virtual LabBio4HeredityIntroduct toGeneticsion Name ________________________________ Class _______ Date _________________Part C: Flower PositionReset the experiment setup but keep the pea plant as the model organism. This time,select flower position as the trait to investigate. Once again, you will determine thepattern of inheritance for this trait. This time, however, you will choose whichparental genotypes to cross and how to use the results to determine the pattern ofinheritance.8. Use the space below to record the procedure and results of your experiment.__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________9. How many offspring did you produce in each cross before you felt confidentenough to infer the pattern of inheritance based on your results? Explain yourreasoning.__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.Virtual LabBio5HeredityIntroduct toGeneticsion
Expert answer:Introduction to Genetics
by | Sep 2, 2021 | Uncategorized
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