Solved by a verified expert:What is required:
You need to write a 2000 word essay which includes a strong
opening, middle and conclusion

I have already started this essay hence I just
need help in completing the assignment the topic of the this essay is how does
endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the female reproductive system and health

I have started the introduction where I talk about
endocrine disrupting chemicals, what they are and the mechanisms how they work
(PCBS, PBA’S, DES) are examples of endocrine disrupting chemicals

The middle I have started too, which ive given the
example of how endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the female reproductive
system and health but I need more examples for this e.g. how endocrine
disrupting chemicals can affect fertility, any other female reproductive

Concluding with the main points of the examples
given and overall discussion, giving details

References should be given in havard style like
ive done so already
How does
endocrine disrupting chemical’s affect the female reproductive system and
An endocrine disruptor is defined by the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as “an exogenous agent that interferes
with synthesis, secretion, transport, metabolism, binding action, or
elimination of natural blood-borne hormones that are present in the body and
are responsible for homeostasis, reproduction, and developmental process.”(Kuiper,
2001) Endocrine disrupting chemicals are known to function via the
nuclear receptors, such receptors are serotonin receptor, norepinephrine
receptor, and dopamine receptors along with many other vital receptors that
contribute to the enzymatic pathways involved in metabolism.(Steroid,
2011)Over the years of scientific research there have been many tonnes
of man-made chemicals that has been produced and released into the environment.
These chemicals have the ability to modulate the functioning of hormones also
known as endocrine disrupting chemicals. The endocrine system plays a huge role
in balancing the human body especially in females in relation to menstruation
and fertility as these twotypes of female productivity can becomesensitive to
hormone imbalances. The endocrine system has many diverse functions throughout
the body one of its main function is to regulate biological processes this
happens from conception through adulthood into old age. The main organs
involved in the endocrine system are the female ovaries, male testes, thyroid,
pituitary gland and the endocrine glands.(Rev, 2009)
Recent research has claimed that there have
been many different types of environmental contaminants which may contribute to
endocrine disrupting activity, and could be a concern to public health.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been highly increased in prevalence of
diseases such as diabetes, obesity, thyroid disease and cancer.(EndocrinolMetab,
2014)Endocrine disrupting chemicals are able to regulate hormonal
function in the body, particularly affecting steroid hormones e.g.
glucocorticoids, androgens, oestrogens. Concentrations of hormones could be affected
by the binding of the endocrine disruptor to a specific hormone receptor. In
order for the proper functioning of the hormones, they have to be released into
the bloodstream from there is transported by carrier proteins into the cell wall
binding to specific regions of the cell’s DNA for the activation of the gene. (Colborn,
vomSaal and Soto, 1993). These synthetic compounds are able to
interfere with hormonal activity. The
mechanism of endocrine disruptors work by mimicking the hormone by binding to
its receptor thus activating the same response that the natural hormone would
or blocking the normal biological response, in this reaction the receptor site
becomes occupied. They bind to the carrier proteins which reduces the
accessibility of these proteins to transport hormones through to the
bloodstream. Endocrine disruptors are able to react directly or indirectly with
the structure of the hormone, which enables it to alter its function and change
the regulation of hormone synthesis. (ReprodFertil, 2011)
Figure1 shows the effects of EDC on the female reproductive system, the
different types of EDC is present in the table should the possible clinical
conditions they cause.

The image above shows the different types
of endocrine disrupting compounds and the possible clinical conditions they
cause in the female reproductive system; the different types of EDC’s are
tested on animals to see their effects.
The female reproductive system merely is
dependent upon the hormone concentrations and balance. Therefore the
dysfunction of the endocrine system may lead to the abnormality of the female
reproductive system and health e.g. irregular
menstrual cycle, endometriosis, impaired fertility and ovulation impairments.
Hormones such as oestrogen, androgens and thyroid can be modulated by EDC’s, in
occurrence to this the establishment for whether they can affect female genital
function is vital. There is evidence that the effects of endocrine disrupting
may be coming from a drug called diethylstilboestrol these are synthetic forms
of oestrogen and are given to pregnant women to prevent miscarriages. In 1971
researchers discovered that DES is a type of cancer which could affect the
cervix and vagina this type of disease leads to adenocarcinoma of the vagina.
Therefore it was declared by the FDA physicians throughout the country not to
prescribe the drug to pregnant women. (FDA Drug Bulletin, 1972)DES is
defined as an endocrine disrupting chemical which is able to interfere with the
endocrine system to cause many major abnormalities such as birth defects and
cancer. Furthermore DES are categorized as xenon-oestrogens which means that
they imitate to act like the oestrogen hormone as in comparison to many of the
endocrine disruptors they act in the similar manner. (Nicolopoulou-Stamati and Pitsos
2001). Oneof the first DES
daughters was diagnosed at a young age with clear cell adenocarcinoma this was
first evident in adult females almost 40 years ago; they have a high risk of
developing abnormal cells such as dysplasia in the cervix and vagina which
could be a potential risk of developing cancer.(Verloop, 2010) These
abnormal cells are not able to invade the surrounding healthy tissue hence they
are not cancerous, however if these cells are left untreated they have the
ability to be elevated as a risk of becoming cancerous. (Rubin,2007) The overall
risk of breast cancer is not prone to having been exposed to DES chemicals but
after the age of 40, the DES daughters have twice the risk of developing breast
cancer in comparison to those who are unexposed. (Palmer,2006)
Endocrine disruptors can distribute and
interfere with the functioning and development of the endocrine system; this
can have an effect on the developing embryos and the development of organs. A
recent case study by Colborn, vomSaal and Soto discovered that women who fed on
Lake Michigan fish for six years whilst being pregnant, their offspring would
differ in comparison to normal offspring’s. Some of the abnormalities noticed were
lower birth weights and smaller skull circumference; these babies would have
been exposed to PCB’s which are a type of endocrine disrupting chemical. The
breast milk that women fed on to their offspring may have been exposed and
consisted of a large concentration of endocrine disrupting chemicals therefore
leading to the impairments like such. (Colborn,1993). Exposure to
endogenous oestrogen could risk an individual of having breast cancer. If
exposed to long periods of time particularly during the development of breast
tissues the effects could substantially be long term. (Birnbaum 2003)
Figure2As stated there has been many studies that have high risks of birth
defects, miscarriages and cancerous development associated with DES exposure,
figure 2 shows the fertility clinical conditions and there percentage risks in
women aged 45 who are exposed to DES in comparison to women who are not exposed
with the same age factors

Image url:

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