Solved by a verified expert:Site: ____________________________________Name: ___________________________HOMEWORK ACTIVITY: RESEARCH DESIGN EXERCISE(revised 7/03)Directions: Read each scenario and research problem, formulate a research design, and identify possible threats toboth internal and external validity.ScenarioScenario 1. In health sciences education,evaluation of clinical performance is animportant and time consuming aspect ofbecoming a competent healthcarepractitioner.Too frequently students express that theclinical evaluation experience is anxietyprovoking and effects their self-concepts.Ideally, health science students shouldmaster their clinical skills, unaffectedemotionally by the clinical grades theyreceive. If students believe that they arecompetent in most clinical situations, butfind themselves with frequentunsatisfactory evaluations, they mayexperience a lowering of their selfconcepts.Design a study to determine if there is asignificant relationship between students’self-concepts and their final clinicalgrades.Research ProblemIs there a statistically significantrelationship betweenstudents’ self concepts and their finalclinical grades?What is the self-concept of students withthe highest clinical grades?What is the self-concept of students withthe lowest clinical grades?Research DesignThreats to Internal/External Validity Scenario 2. The oral infections in longterm, hospitalized patients have been aconcern of hospital staff because oralinfection can lead to infection in otherbody systems. Dental care is not easilyobtainable for these patients due to thelack of dental facilities in hospitals. Theoral healthcare that the long-termhospitalized patient receives is limited todaily oral hygiene, either performed bythe patient, a significant other, or by amember of the hospital staff.Can a daily 0.12% chlorhexidinemouthrinse program reduce the oralinfections and other body systeminfections of long term hospitalizedpatients?A daily 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinsingprogram could be implemented as apreventive measure to control oralpathogens and protect the hospitalizedpatient from more serious dentalproblems and possible medicalcomplications. Design a study to test theeffectiveness of a daily chlorhexidinemouthrinse program for long termhospital patients. A hospital facility hasagreed to allow the research team toevaluate two wards of 30 hospitalizedpatients.Scenario 3. Healthcare professions havebegun to recognized that babies enduresevere and lasting pain during and aftercircumcision. A recent study byresearchers at Rochester General Hospitalin New York demonstrated that the painof circumcision is so severe that an overthe-counter pain reliever for infants failedto relieve their pain during and after theprocedure.Design a study that would test severalpain management strategies for helpinginfants cope with the pain during andafter circumcision.What pain management strategies aremost effective in controlling pain ininfants both during and aftercircumcision? Scenario 4. In the typical educationalsetting, a number of different facultyevaluate student clinical performance.These instructors frequently have beentaught, or have acquired, differentevaluation procedures and criteria. Inaddition, many faculty teach on a parttime basis and therefore, have limitedopportunity to become standardized onthe specific procedures and criteria usedin evaluating students’ clinicalperformance. These conditions can resultin inconsistent evaluation of students’clinical performance. Research to datedemonstrates that inter-instructorconsistency is low in clinical evaluation ofstudents’ performance. However, therehas been little research that has dealtwith a possible solution to this problem.One approach suggested in the literatureis the establishment of instructor trainingprograms. The research on in-servicetraining programs for clinical instructorshas yielded both positive and negativeresults.What is the level of inter-instructorconsistency in clinical evaluation ofhealth science students?Does in-service training of clinicalinstructors improve inter-instructorconsistency in clinical evaluation ofhealth science students?Design a study to measure the level ofinter-instructor consistency anddetermine if the level of inter-instructorconsistency is improved after completionof an in-service program by theinstructors.Scenario 5. Health educators areinterested in testing the effectiveness ofa new self-breast examination videotapeon increasing monthly self-examinationbehaviors in women. The researchers areinterested in establishing a baseline onthe self-examination behaviors of womenprior to the study, yet they are concernedabout sensitizing the subjects and theeffects that pre-testing may have on thestudy’s outcomes.Design a study to determine the effects ofthe videotape on women’s selfexamination behavior.Does a new self-breast examinationvideotape affect the monthly selfexamination behaviors of women? Scenario 6. Avon’s Skin-So-Soft has beenreported to serve as an effective insectrepellant for individuals who use it. SkinSo-Soft comes in three forms, a lotion, anoil, and a spray. Some people report thatthe oil is more effective on males than onfemales.Design a study to evaluate theeffectiveness of Avon’s Skin-So-Soft as aninsect repellant for both male and femaleusers.Scenario 7. Researchers from theUniversity of Oklahoma conducted a studyto measure pathogenic organisms on bothnew and used toothbrushes to assess thepotential for acquiring oral infectionsfrom toothbrushes. Besides themicroorganisms of oral infection, theresearchers found organisms responsiblefor respiratory, gastrointestinal,cardiovascular, and kidney disease. Theyalso found that 80% of new brushes fromone manufacturer contaminated bybacteria, despite packaging and sealing.Design a study to determine if themicroorganisms on toothbrushes used byclients in the hospital are linked withtheir medical conditions.Is there a statistically significantdifference in the numbers of insect bitesreceived by individuals wearing Skin-SoSoft lotion, oil and spray?Is there a statistically significantdifference in the number of insect bitesreceived by males and females who arewearing Skin-So-Soft?Is there a statistically significantinteraction between the type of Skin-SoSoft used (lotion, oil or spray) and thegenders of the user (male or female) asmeasured by the number of insect bitesreceived?Is there a relationship between the typesof pathogenic microorganisms found ontoothbrushes and the disease states ofthe users. Scenario 8. Ginkgo biloba extract, usedfor thousands of years by the Chinese,has been shown to slow the progressionof Alzheimer’s disease slightly in somepeople. The effects of ginkgo on thebrain are not understood but may berelated to antioxidants, a compound thatneutralizes and destructive form ofoxygen. The Ginkgo extract, calledEgb761, has been approved for medicaluse in Germany, but not in the USA.Design a study to determine if Egb761affects Alzheimer’s disease progression.What short-term effect does Egb761 haveon Alzheimer’s disease?What long-term effect does Egb761 haveon Alzheimer’s disease?