Solved by a verified expert:CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS Chap. 512. What is the overall purpose of the light reactions in photosynthesis?13. Why are carnivores, such as lions, dependent on photosynthesis to survive?14. Describe the pathway of energy in light dependent reactions.15. Which part of the Calvin cycle would be affected if a cell could not produce the enzyme RuBisCO?16. Explain the reciprocal nature of the net chemical reactions for photosynthesis and respiration.CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS Chap. 612. Compare and contrast a human somatic cell to a human gamete.13. Describe the similarities and differences between the cytokinesis mechanisms found in animal cells versus those in plant cells.14. Outline the steps that lead to a cell becoming cancerous.15. Explain the difference between a proto-oncogene and a tumor suppressor gene.16. Name the common components of eukaryotic cell division and binary fission.CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS Chap. 712. Explain the advantage that populations of sexually reproducing organisms have over asexually reproducing organisms?13. Describe the two events that are common to all sexually reproducing organisms and how they fit into the different life cycles of those organisms.14. Explain how the random alignment of homologous chromosomes during metaphase I contributes to variation in gametes produced by meiosis.15. In what ways is meiosis II similar to and different from mitosis of a diploid cell?16. Individuals with trisomy 21 are more likely to survive to adulthood than individuals with trisomy 18. Based on what you know about aneuploidies from this module, what can you hypothesize about chromosomes 21 and 18?CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS Chap. 814. Describe one of the reasons that made the garden pea an excellent choice of model system for studying inheritance.15. Use a Punnett square to predict the offspring in a cross between a dwarf pea plant (homozygous recessive) and a tall pea plant (heterozygous). What is the phenotypic ratio of the offspring?16. Use a Punnett square to predict the offspring in a cross between a tall pea plant (heterozygous) and a tall pea plant (heterozygous). What is the genotypic ratio of the offspring?17. Can a male be a carrier of red-green color blindness?18. Could an individual with blood type O (genotypeii) be a legitimate child of parents in which one parent had blood type A and the other parent had blood type B?