Solved by a verified expert:Answer questions 13, 17, 24, 29, 30, 31, 32, 36, 37GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY EXAM 1 VERSION 1 FALL 2013READ THE PROBLEM!1. Substance A receives an electron from substance B. Substance A has been:a. oxidized b. reduced2. Substances A-E have the following Eo’ values: A = +0.4, B = – 0.3, C = 0, D = +0.6,E = – 0.6. How would electron flow occur if these were part of an electrontransport chain?a. A B C D Ed. E C B A Db. D A C B Ee. B E A D Cc. E B C A D3. In the above question, how much potential energy is available?a. 1 volt b. 0.6 volt c. 1.9 volts d. 0 volts e. 1.2 volts4. You are trying to prove that a bacterial isolate is the cause of a new emergingdisease, because every sick person you tested has the bacterium present and everyhealthy person does not. Before calling the CDC you decide to test yourself, andyou find the bacterium even though you definitely are not sick with the disease.You don’t make the call because you cannot fulfill which one of Koch’s Postulates?a. first b. second c. third d. fourth e. fifth5. If a microbe is growing on glucose and light it is a:a. photoautotroph b. chemoautotroph c. photoheterotroph d. chemoheterotroph6. If a microbe is growing by fermenting glucose it is a:a. photoautotroph b. chemoautotroph c. photoheterotroph d. chemoheterotroph7. How are electron carriers held in place in a membrane?a. hydrophilic interactions c. both and an bb. hydrophobic interactions d. none of the above8. If you have an oxidation you also have to have:+a. pmf b. ATP c. a reduction d. NADPH + H e. a fermentation9. You have a culture growing on 1 gram of yeast extract dissolved in 1 liter ofwater. This medium is:a. complex b. defined c. contaminated d. not a good one – nothing can grow in it10. What types of microorganism can contain a monolayer in the cell membrane?a. Bacteria b. Eukaryotes c. Archaea d. Viruses e. yeast11. In the above question, what type of environment would this microbe beexpected to be growing in?a. the oceanc. an extreme environment such as very high temperatureb. an animal host d. an extreme environment such as very cold temperature12. For the same question, what is the “monolayer” made of?a. peptidoglycan c. glycerol tetraetherse. fatty acidsb. pseudomurein d. glycerol diethers13. What cannot diffuse across the wall of a gas vesicle?a. water b. oxygen c. nitrogen gas d. CO e. CO2 14. Which of the following does not make a flagellated chemotactic microorganismmove up a gradient of an attractant?a. a decrease in rate of autophosphorylation of CheAb. an increase in rate of autophosphorylation of CheAc. a biased change between CW and CCW direction of flagella rotationd. an increase in runs vs. tumblese. higher binding of attractants to chemoreceptors15. What directly makes the flagellar motor reverse direction?a. the interaction of CheY~P with the flagellar motord. pmfb. methylation of the MCPse. ATPc. demethylation of the MCPs16. CheA autophosphorylates before passing the phosphate to CheB. CheA is a(n)____________ and CheB is a _____________.a. attractant, repellantc. sensor kinase, response regulatorb. response regulator, sensor kinase d. transducer, methyl group17. If you look at a drawing of a bacterial membrane and on one side a lot ofprotons are indicated, which side of the membrane is that one?a. outside (periplasmic space or environment) b. inside (cytoplasm)18. If the protons are in the periplasmic space, it is a species of:a. Gram positive bacteriad. Gram negative archaeab. Gram negative bacteriae. answers b or d are correctc. Gram positive archaea19. A membrane transport protein that moves substance A out while also movingsubstance B in (at the same time) is an example of:a. a uniporter b. a symporter c. an antiporter d. a co-transporter20. In the above question, if B is a proton, what is powering the transport?a. ATP b. pmf c. glucose d. the concentration of substance A21. In the above two questions, this is an example of:a. simple transport b. group translocation c. the ABC system22. Which of the following is not present in bacterial cell walls?a. n-acetylglusoamined. peptidoglycanb. n-acetylymuramic acide. they are all presentc. n-acetylalosaminuronic acid23. How is peptidoglycan held together?a. hydrophobic interactionsd. covalent bondsb. hydrophilic interactionse. all of the abovec. a combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions24. During both photosynthesis and respiration ATP is produced:a. as a result of electron flowd. by pmfb. by substrate level phosphorylatione. all except bc. by protons moving through ATPase 25. Which will produce the most pmf?a. an electron moving from a cytochrome to another cytochromeb. an electron moving from a cytochrome to a quinonec. an electron moving from an iron-sulfur protein to a cytochromed. an electron moving from a hydrogen carrier to another H carriere. a proton moving through Fo26. In oxygenic photosynthesis, where is the electron donated?+a. PSI b. PSII c. NAD(P) H + H d. water e. oxygen27. In oxygenic photosynthesis, what is the electron donor?+a. PSI b. PSII c. NAD(P) H + H d. water e. oxygen28. Why is photosynthesis often modeled as a “Z scheme”?a. because organization of the ETC in the membrane is like a Zb. because one possible electron donor is Zc. because when plotted on the electron tower the path of electron flow is like a Zd. because it was discovered by Dr. Ze. because the electron acceptor is Z29. The third stage of fermentation is required to:a. produce ATPd. produce NAD++b. produce NADH + He. produce pmf+c. produce ATP and NADH + H30. How much ATP in total is produced by fermentation of one molecule ofglucose?a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 631. How much actual ATP is produced by fermentation of one molecule of glucose?a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 632. If the answers to the above two questions are different, why?a. There are 6 carbons in glucose, but it is only partially oxidizedb. Some ATP is used in stage three to balance the oxidation/reductionc. Some ATP is used in stage one to activate glucose+d. Some ATP is used in stage two to oxidize NADH + H33. You are growing cells in a chemostat whose volume is 500 mls. You aredripping media from the reservoir through the growth vessel at a rate of 1500 mlsper hour. How fast are the cells growing (doubling time)?a. 20 minutes b. 1 hour c. 2 hours d. 3 hours e. 5 hours34. You crank the rate of flow up to 4500 mls per hour, but notice shortly afterthat the medium is clear. When you plate to count cells (viable count) nothinggrows. What happened?a. you contaminated your culture with a virus when you increased the rateb. the cells can’t grow fast enoughc. you washed the cells outd. the cells are in lag phase – you just have to waite. both b and c 35. In batch culture, what happens to cells when they are in “stationary” phase?a. they are growing exponentiallyd. they have all formed sporesb. they are deade. they quit movingc. they are alive but not growing36. In quorum sensing, bacteria respond to:a. individual chemicals (attractants, repellants) in the environmentb. a high concentration of individual chemicals (attractants, repellants) in theenvironmentc. signaling molecules produced by bacteriad. a high concentration of signaling molecules produced by bacteria37. Autoinducers:a. diffuse from inside the cell to outside the cellb. diffuse from outside the cell to inside the cellc. both of the aboved. are synthesized inside the cell and stay inside the celle. are actively transported outside of the cell and stay outside the cell38. Most cells have a solute concentration of about 10 mM, much higher than thatof the environment. Why is this a potential problem?a. It is hard to transport needed substances in because of the concentrationgradient.b. Most environments have water present, which will diffuse across the membranebecause of the high solute concentration and cause cells to swell and burstc. The proton motive force doesn’t work as well with such a high concentration ofsolutes inside the celld. Cells can’t keep up metabolizing all of the solutese. Cells keep responding to these QS signals39. In the above question, how do most cells resolve the problem?a. by continually pumping the solute back outside the cellb. by having semi-permeable membranesc. by having rigid cell wallsd. by having porins that allow the solutes to move oute. none of the above40. What is the function of teichoic acids?a. it keeps protons near the cell wall in Gram negative bacteriab. it keeps protons near the cell wall in Gram positive bacteriac. it keeps protons in the periplasmic space in Gram negative bacteriab. it keeps protons in the periplasmic space in Gram positive bacteria