Solved by a verified expert:Question 1 (1 point)1Which statement about evolution is FALSE?Question 1 options:According to evolutionary theory, you are related to a bacterium, to a yeast cell, to a snake, and toa whale. In fact, you are related to every species now alive on Earth, and to fossil species likedinosaurs as well.Natural selection acts on genetic differences within a population to cause evolution. Individuals donot evolve.Natural selection is about slow but steady progress. Through it, populations constantly get betteradapted. When this process is completed for all populations, evolution will come to a stop.Evolution occurs constantly, without end; there is no endpoint in evolution.SaveQuestion 2 (1 point)2Negatively charged particles are found where in an atom?Question 2 options:In the nucleusIn a single layer outside the nucleusIn multiple layers outside the nucleusBoth inside and outside the nucleusSaveQuestion 3 (1 point)3You have a solution that has a pH of 8 and need it to be pH 5. What do you do?Question 3 options:Add waterAdd a baseAdd an acidAdd a bufferSaveQuestion 4 (1 point)4What characteristic of carbon makes it a good backbone for creating diverse and durable molecules?Question 4 options:Carbon is a large atom.Carbon forms four covalent bonds.Carbon forms hydrogen bonds.All of the aboveSaveQuestion 5 (1 point)5Which of the following structures can be found together in eukaryotic cells?Question 5 options:cytoplasm and ribosomescytoplasm and plasma membraneDNA and ribosomesribosomes and endoplasmic reticulumSaveQuestion 6 (1 point)6Which of the following reactions or pathways is catabolic?Question 6 options:Breaking down ATP into ADP and phosphate.Making starch from many glucose molecules.Photosynthesis: which builds glucose from carbon dioxide using energy from light.Making ATP from ADP and Phosphate.SaveQuestion 7 (1 point)7In a metabolic pathway, a typical control mechanism is to have: ________Question 7 options:the final product have no effect on the enzyme responsible for its own production.the final product inhibit an early step.a reactant inhibit a late step.a lack of reactant stimulate the pathway.SaveQuestion 8 (1 point)8Mitosis results in ______ cells and meiosis results in _______ cells.Question 8 options:haploid, diploiddiploid, haploiddiploid, diploidhaploid,haploidSaveQuestion 9 (1 point)9In beans yellow (Y) is dominant to green (y) and smooth (S) is dominant to wrinkled (s). What are thepossible genotypes for the offspring of the following cross: YySS and YYSs.Question 9 options:YYSS, YYss, yySS, yyssYS, yS, YS, ySYy, SS, YY, SsYYSS, YySS, YYSs, YySsSaveQuestion 10 (1 point)10Red rose color is incompletely dominant over white rose color. If a red rose is crossed with a pink rose,what percentage of the offspring will be pink?Question 10 options:100755025SaveQuestion 11 (1 point)11One of the products of cellular respiration is ________.Question 11 options:watersucrosecelluloseoxygenSaveQuestion 12 (1 point)12An ecologist is studying all the animals, plants, fungi and bacteria, as well as the interaction among them,in a forest? He is studying the _________ in the forest.Question 12 options:nichebiomecommunitypopulationSaveQuestion 13 (1 point)13The temperature optimum for an enzyme is 37C. What will most likely happen if you increase thetemperature from 37C to 50C?Question 13 options:The enzyme activity will not be affectedThe enzyme activity will increaseThe enzyme activity will decreaseThe pH will increaseSaveQuestion 14 (1 point)14When celery is placed in a glass of pure water the solution inside its cells is _____ compared to thewater.Question 14 options:selectively permeableisotonichypertonichypotonicSaveQuestion 15 (1 point)15An ecosystem can be characterized as:Question 15 options:populations + community.all species, population, and community interactions for organisms in a given area.the abiotic components of the environment.all of the biological interactions, plus interactions with the abiotic environment, in a given area.SaveQuestion 16 (1 point)16EnzymesQuestion 16 options:catalyze reactionsprevent reactions from occurringare found only in prokaryotesall of those answers are correctSaveQuestion 17 (1 point)17This term refers to the maintenance of internal stability in a creature:Question 17 options:homeostasismutualismparasitismmeiosisSaveQuestion 18 (1 point)18Steroids and waxes areQuestion 18 options:proteinscarbohydrateslipidsnucleic acidsSaveQuestion 19 (1 point)19Active transport DOES NOT require ATPQuestion 19 options:TrueFalseSaveQuestion 20 (1 point)20In October of 2003, a raging wildfire swept through the mountain ecosystems in Southern California,burning everything in its path to the ground and driving away all of the animals. In order for themountain ecosystem to re-establish itself, which member of the food web has to return first?Question 20 options:deercoyotessnakegrassesSaveQuestion 21 (1 point)21Carbohydrates are notQuestion 21 options:stored potential energymade mostly of nitrogen and carbon.broken down by cellular respiration.made by producers.SaveQuestion 22 (1 point)22A primary consumer would eat:Question 22 options:secondary consumersplants.Bacteria.rabbits.SaveQuestion 23 (1 point)23Diffusion isQuestion 23 options:One type of active transportThe movement of water across the cell membraneThe movement of molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentrationThe movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentrationSaveQuestion 24 (1 point)24Any individual organism has the potential to adapt to its environment, if it is given enough time andpossesses a mechanism to generate variation.Question 24 options:TrueFalseSaveQuestion 25 (1 point)25Once an adaptation appears, it remains in all the descendants unless the species becomes extinctQuestion 25 options:TrueFalseSaveQuestion 26 (1 point)26When a founder population has a small gene pool, evolutionary change is more likely to be rapid than ifthe founder population has a large gene pool.Question 26 options:TrueFalseSaveQuestion 27 (1 point)27When speciation occurs, the result is a huge dramatic change in the new species.Question 27 options:TrueFalseSaveQuestion 28 (1 point)28When two groups are reproductively isolated, it can be reliably predicted that speciation will follow verysoon.Question 28 options:TrueFalseSaveQuestion 29 (1 point)29Codons are locate onQuestion 29 options:abiotic componentsDNARNAall of thoseSaveQuestion 30 (1 point)30Fossil evidence suggests that human ancestors arose one time in Africa.Question 30 options:TrueFalseSaveQuestion 31 (1 point)31Sunlight influences vitamin D production is humans.Question 31 options:TrueFalseSaveQuestion 32 (1 point)32Mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells are very similar to prokaryotesQuestion 32 options:TrueFalseSaveQuestion 33 (1 point)33Organisms that live in habitats with high levels of competition are more likely to produce defensivechemicals than those that live with little competition.Question 33 options:TrueFalseSaveQuestion 34 (1 point)34The human population may continue to increase even though it surpasses carrying capacity.Question 34 options:TrueFalseSaveQuestion 35 (1 point)35A woman’s ovum will complete Meiosis II only, if fertilization has occurred.Question 35 options:TrueFalseSaveQuestion 36 (1 point)36One human disease is caused by a change in the DNA from GAA to GTA. This change is an example of:Question 36 options:crossing overa mutationindependent assortmentcytokinesisSaveQuestion 37 (1 point)37The main function of a ribosome is to ____________________.Question 37 options:extract energy from glucosesynthesize glucosestore food in the form of fatsynthesize proteinsSaveQuestion 38 (1 point)38The effectiveness of a medication containing growth hormone is tested on a group of young male rabbits3 weeks of age. The best control group would be:Question 38 options:any group of rabbitsa group of young male rabbits 3 weeks of age, not given the medicationa group of young female rabbits 3 weeks of age, not given the medicationno control is required; just measure whether the rabbits grewSaveQuestion 39 (1 point)39The number of _______________ in the outer shell of an atom determines the type of chemical bondsan atom can make.Question 39 options:electronsprotonsionsneutronsSaveQuestion 40 (1 point)40You find a cell of a type you have never seen before. The cell has both a nucleus and a cell wall.Therefore, you conclude, it must be a _______________ cell.Question 40 options:liveranimalbacterialplantSaveQuestion 41 (1 point)41The gene pool of a population may change due to:Question 41 options:migrationgenetic drifnatural selection and mutationall of the aboveSaveQuestion 42 (2 points)42What are "keystone species" in a community?Question 42 options:SaveQuestion 43 (2 points)43What is "pseudoscience"?Question 43 options:SaveQuestion 44 (2 points)44What are dependent variables?Question 44 options:SaveQuestion 45 (8 points)45(Required) You have read that inorganic fertilizers contribute to water pollution and would like to makea switch from inorganic fertilizers to organic compost in your vegetable garden. A friend graciously givesyou a truck load of his compost. As a good researcher and critical thinker you are not convinced thatorganic compost will yield better results than the inorganic fertilizer you have used for years with goodresults. To draw your own conclusion based on scientific evidence you decide to conduct an experimentin your garden. State a good hypothesis, design an experiment (include test subjects, sample size,control(s), dependent and independent variables, type of data collected) and hypotheticalresults/conclusion. Does your conclusion support the hypothesis?Question 45 options:SaveQuestion 46 (8 points)46(Required) The habitat of one species of tropical fish is red coral reefs. The large majority of the fish inthis population are red. A few individual fish carry a mutation that prevents the production of the redpigment; as a result these individual fish are white.The temperature of the ocean where these fish livegets warmer and warmer over a 10 year period, and as a result the coral is bleached and turns white.Use what you have learned about natural selection to explain how this bleaching event may haveaffected the evolution this fish population (not including possible direct effects of warmer temperatureson the fish). Use appropriate terminology about evolution in your answer, including the terms naturalselection, adaptive trait, and reproductive success.Question 46 options:SaveQuestion 47 (8 points)47Describe the major land biome where you live. How have human activities affected native species?Include specific examples.Question 47 options:SaveQuestion 48 (8 points)48You scoop up a water sample from a local pond nearby, because you are curious about the possiblemicrobes that might live there. Afer looking at several slides that held drops of the sample, you noticedtwo different kinds of cells: One kind was very small and had no separate internal structures; the otherkind was much larger, and it contained several kinds of internal structures that were physically differentfrom each other. Please name each cell and briefly describe their similarities and differences.Question 48 options:SaveSave All Responses