Solved by a verified expert:1) Environmental Science is:a) A mathematical study of the effects ofspecies diversity on human well-being, asperceived through the scientific methodinvolving observation, experimentation anddocumentation.b) A holistic approach to social systems andtheir role in determining the world view ofdifferent cultures as pertains to the supportsystems provided by planetary physical andbiological conditions.c) A comprehensive and integratedinvestigation of the physical, biological, andsocietal conditions through which we, andthe rest of the planetary ecosystem, sustainlife.d) An easy "A"2) Which of the following is NOT a major humanperturbation of the environment?a) land useb) emissionsc) whalingd) all of the above3) The ‘tragedy’ related to the commons is:a) the fact that people destroy or consumeresources including the atmosphere, waterand oilb) that consumption rates exceed currentbiocapacityc) that from the perspective of the individual,the immediate benefit from exploiting thecommons is large compared to the cost,which is distributed among the entirecommunityd) none of the above, the tragedy is aShakespearian play4) Meeting the needs of the present withoutcompromising the ability of future generations tomeet their own needs is a definition ofa) applicabilityb) transgenerational transferabilityc) superadiabatic generationalityd) sustainability5) The precautionary principle suggests thata) the most authority will be given to the mostcautious part of governmentb) each should do what needs to be done evenwhen no one else is willing to tryc) you should take action to improveenvironmental conditions (or prevent themfrom degrading) just in case it turns out to beimportant, even if you don’t know specificconsequencesd) curiosity killed the cate) grade school administrators should cautiontheir school children against the dangers ofenvironmental hazards6) What describes a comprehensive and integratedinvestigation of the physical, biological, and societalconditions through which we, and the rest of theplanetary ecosystem, sustains life?a) molecular biologyb) cosmologyc) accountingd) sociologye) environmental science7) Fundamental environmental issues includea) litteringb) sustainabilityc) wolf predation on sheep in YellowstoneNational Parkd) all of the above8) The main human perturbations of the globalenvironment stem froma) pollution and huntingb) emissions and land usec) air travel and railroadsd) shipping and receiving9) Which of the following does NOT describe science?a) testableb) disprovablec) democraticd) imperfect10) There was mud on his shoes. It rained that night.The murder occurred in the park, where the grasshad been dug up for a construction project. Theweapon could only have been wielded by a strongman. – On the basis of this, what kind of scientificreasoning would Sherlock Holmes use to crack thecase?a) inductive reasoningb) deductive reasoningc) reductionist reasoningd) reactionary reasoning11) What is the best demonstrated scientific concept?a) hypothesisb) thesisc) inferenced) theory12) Marvin is stressed about waking up and making it ontime to his first day of physics class. He sets thealarm on his digital watch (reads to 1/100 of asecond!) and arrives at 9:00:00.00 a.m.Unfortunately, every other clock on campus readsabout 9:10. Marvin is woefully late and goes on tobecome an art history major. Which of the followingis a correct statement about Marvin’s watch?a) it is precise, but not accurateb) it is accurate, but not precisec) it is neither accurate nor precised) it is both accurate and precisee) Marvin needs to learn to tell time13) One distinction between (A) science and (B) religion,ethics, and morals is that scientific statements are:a) disprovableb) universally acceptedc) inferenced) deductivee) numericald) testable21) In the Daisyworld model:a) black daisies thrive in cool temperaturesb) daisies are an invasive species and outcompete other speciesc) black daisies tend to cool the planetarytemperatured) white daisies thrive in cool temperatures14) Premise: A straight line is the shortest distancebetween two points._Premise: The line from A to Bis the shortest distance between points A andB._Conclusion: Therefore, the line from A to B is astraight line. The above is an example of_________________a) a scientific proofb) a hypothesisc) inductive reasoningd) deductive reasoninge) a scientific fact15) Generalizations based on a number of concreteobservations are:a) inductiveb) deductivec) persuasived) always truee) usually false16) Accuracy is identical to precisiona) Trueb) Falsec) Precisely17) Which principle holds that history is dominated bymajor or sudden events, rather than the normaleveryday processes?a) parliamentarianb) uniformitarianc) catastrophismd) Antidisestablishmentarianism18) If you see the sun rise everyday and thus infer that itwill rise again tomorrow you are usinga) inductive reasoningb) deductive reasoningc) productive reasoningd) reactive reasoning19) A Theory is:a) a testable explanation for observationsb) a proven set of hypotheses that has passedrigorous testing by observations,experiments and applicationsc) very difficult to establish and arrogant topresumed) a set of observations20) Science isa) agreeableb) democraticc) believable22) The stability of the distribution of black and whitedaisies in daisyworld is due toa) positive feedbackb) negative feedbackc) runaway greenhouse effectd) energy flow between trophic levels23) Which is NOT a scientific principle of the Gaiahypothesis?a) life affects its physical environmentb) life has altered its planetary environmentsuch that it continues to existc) the history of the Earth is dominated bysudden and sometimes devastating andcatastrophic eventsd) life controls the global environment onpurpose24) The Gaia Hypothesis states that the dominant forcethat has shaped the global environment through timeisa) The oceansb) The atmospherec) Lifed) The Gaia species from Alpha Centaurie) Humans25) Considering inputs to a pool and outputs from it, thepool will be in steady state when:a) inputs exceed outputsb) outputs ceasec) inputs equal outputsd) outputs exceed inputse) inputs cease26) A nonlinear system is one in whicha) output is zerob) output change is proportional to inputchangec) output amplifies or buffers inputd) none of the above27) The Gaia hypothesis supports the idea that:a) the earth is not self-sufficientb) the environment is deterioratingc) the earth is a self regulating system(homeostasis)d) the earth is not a self regulating system (nohomeostasis)d) 18 years28) When one person in a room yawns, many others arelikely to yawn as well. This is an example of :a) Positive feedbackb) Negative feedbackc) all of aboved) none of above29) If the rate of increase is proportional to presentstock, ____ can be observed:a) Logistic growthb) Exponential growthc) Slow growthd) Declining growth30) The rate at which something enters or leaves areservoir is aa) Stockb) Bondc) Floodd) flux31) Parks are like islands in that species diversity isdetermined by:a) distance to other parks or natural areasb) amount of food on the islandc) size of parkd) longitude of parke) a and c32) If people are part of the global environment, thena) whatever we do is naturalb) the resources provided by the environmentthat surrounds us are ours to use upc) nature will adapt to our activities andcontinue to support the ecosystemd) feedbacks exist between environmentalperturbations and impacts on society andhealth33) What is the carrying capacity of the Earth?a) 1 billion peopleb) 6 billion peoplec) 40 billion peopled) depends on how people want to live34) Ten percent of all the people who have ever livedare still alive because ofa) decreased birth rateb) increased incidence of cancerc) decrease in the number of people whoeventually died) explosive recent population growth35) If a population grows at 10% per year, what is thedoubling time?a) 1 yearb) 7 yearsc) 10 years36) “Carrying capacity” refers to:a) the maximum weight that can be put on avehicle or machineb) the nutrient value of a food sourcec) the amount of a mineral resource that canbe recovered economically from a mined) the average life-expectancy of an individualin a populatione) the maximum number of individuals that canbe supported by an ecosystem37) Which of the following does not contribute to aperson’s ecological footprint?a) the food and fiber consumed by that personover a specific time periodb) the waste produced from the person’senergy consumptionc) the person’s annual incomed) the space needed for infrastructure (livingspace etc)38) The curve of the history of human population,atmospheric CO2 concentration, and otherenvironmentally relevant parameters looks like aa) ski poleb) pool cuec) badminton racquetd) baseball bate) hockey stick39) As the surface ocean warms, it releases carbondioxide due to a decrease in solubility. This leads toa) uniformitarianismb) positive feedbackc) negative feedbackd) catastrophism40) What is a biogeochemical cycle?a) something that organic kids ride whilewearing sustainable helmetsb) the path a chemical takes through thevarious reservoirs (stocks), including thebiospherec) a series of college courses involving biology,geology, and chemistryd) the way carbon interacts with nitrogen in thesoil41) What is the "missing sink"?a) a failure to account for the different betweenprecipitation and evaporation in thehydrologic cycleb) the difference between global atmosphericcarbon emissions and known uptakec) the difference between anthropogenic andorganic nitrogen fixationd) the hole in the kitchen counter where momused to wash the dishes.b) bioticc) humand) all of the above42) In the process of denitrificationa) nitrate is converted to nitriteb) nitrite is converted to ammoniumc) nitrogen is converted to carbond) nitrate is converted to gaseous nitrogen43) Who is primarily responsible for denitrification?a) primary producersb) bacteriac) top predatorsd) the United States Denitrification Agency44) In the global carbon cycle, the most carbon is storedina) the atmosphereb) vegetation, soil, and detritusc) marine biotad) the ocean45) The process of converting fixed nitrogen tomolecular N2 is:a) nitrogen fixationb) nitrate fixationc) denitrificationd) eutrophication46) Who is responsible for nitrogen fixation?a) Algaeb) bacteriac) cryptosporidiumd) nitromechanical engineers47) What drives the hydrologic cycle?a) tidal powerb) windc) the sund) nuclear reactorse) socioeconomic trends48) Warm water can dissolve less CO2 than cold water.SO what is the relation between the marine solubilitypump and climate change?a) negative feedbackb) positive feedbackc) all of aboved) none of above; this is not a feedbackmechanism49) Which of the following organisms is at the lowesttrophic level?a) Snakeb) Oak treec) Eagled) Ephydrid flies50) What are the components of an ecosystem?a) abiotic51) What is a trophic level?a) the altitude of a mountain on the equatorb) a tool for straightening a shelf on whichtrophies are displayedc) where you are on the food chaind) none of the above52) Which has more trophic levels?a) marine ecosystemb) terrestrial ecosystemc) high school trophy cased) college trophy case53) If all species in the world were placed everywhere atonce, what is most likely to happen?a) global diversity will increaseb) primary producers will convert to primaryconsumersc) global diversity will decreased) marine trophic levels will decrease54) If two species look alike, live in different places, butare not genetically related, it is probably a case ofa) convergent evolutionb) divergent evolutionc) evolutionary cyclicityd) uniformitarianism55) What does NOT control the species richness on anisland?a) island sizeb) distance from the mainlandc) climated) longitude of the island56) Species can be especially vulnerable to extinctionwhen:a) the population has high genetic variabilityb) the population is smallc) the population lives far from human activityd) the population is very widely distributede) the population’s ecosystem is productiveand fertile57) When two species are genetically related, but aftersome time, find different ecological niches and lookand behave different, it is calleda) convergent evolutionb) divergent evolutionc) parallel evolutiond) unintelligent design58) How many biomes are there on Earth?a) 1b) 12c) 17d) it depends on how they are defined59) In general, where it is warmer, it is alsoa) wetterb) drierc) coolerd) host to less diverse ecosystem60) If the climate is very rainy in one town, and very dryin another just 50 miles away what is most likely?a) they are in different countriesb) there is a river between themc) there is a mountain between themd) the price of umbrellas will be higher in thedrier town61) Which biome is most likely to host a large birdpopulation?a) tropical rain forestb) desertc) hydrothermal ventd) tundra62) Why do you find large mammals in the Arctic tundra,but not in Alpine tundra?a) there is not enough oxygen in the Alpineenvironmentb) there is too much precipitation in Alpineenvironmentsc) Alpine environments are geographicallyrestrictedd) Santa’s reindeer cannot climb mountains63) If there were to be life on Mars, where it is dry withhighly variable temperature, what biome would youexpect?a) tropical rain forestb) tundrac) desertd) hydrothermal vent64) Two components aid in the definition of the term"invasive species." The first component is that thespecies is exotic. The second component is:a) the species causes damage to economic,environmental, or human healthb) the species is unusually largec) the species is predatory65) Where would you expect to see the most productiveforest?a) polar regionsb) desertc) high elevation (> 15,000′)d) equatore) deep sea vent66) The tulips planted around campus are not from thisarea, but do not spread or cause damage. Whatwould these tulips be considered?a) an invasive species but not an exoticspeciesb) an exotic species but not an invasivespeciesc) an invasive species but not a pathogend) both an exotic and an invasive species67) What is the main feature of a wetland?a) it is wet all year roundb) it has little variation in water temperatureover the course of the yearc) the water table is at or near the groundsurface for much of the growing seasond) the duration of inundation depends on theprecipitatione) the wetland soil is characterized by sufficientoxygen68) What is the "energy" in the following chemicalequation when going right to left?C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + energya) kinetic energyb) nuclear energyc) sunlightd) battery power69) Autotrophs get their energy from:a) sulfur compoundsb) organic matterc) photosynthesisd) they don’t need energy70) C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + _____a) foodb) energyc) productiond) photosynthesis71) Humans are:a) Heterotrophsb) Autotrophsc) Chemoautotrophsd) Primary Producers72) Gross Primary Productivity ? respiration = ___?_____a)b)c)d)energynet primary productivitycarbon emissionspower73) About what percentage of energy is lost betweeneach trophic level?a) 45%b) 90%c) 80%d) 65%74) What is autotrophy?a) what you get for winning the Indy 500b) processing of sugars into energyc) burning hydrocarbonsd) using photosynthesis to produce organicmolecules from inorganic75) The first law of thermodynamics states that:a) efficiency of energy conversion is alwaysless than 100%b) energy is never created, never destroyed,but always preservedc) the present is the key to the pastd) energy is measured in joules, power in wattse) energy can go from higher quality forms tolower, but not in the opposite direction76) The second law of thermodynamics states that:a) efficiency of energy conversion is alwaysgreater than 100%b) energy is never created, never destroyed,but always preservedc) the present is the key to the pastd) energy is measured in joules, power in wattse) the net effect of energy use is to reduce thequality of total resulting energy77) What are the products of photosynthesis?a) oxygen and nitrogenb) oxygen and waterc) carbon and waterd) sugar (glucose) and oxygen78) _______ in animals stores the most energy:a) Muscleb) Organsc) Fatd) bones79) Who eats autotrophs?a) Super carnivoresb) Carnivoresc) Herbivoresd) Primary producers80) _______ occurs when the pioneer species stabilizethe environment for later, longer-lived species.a) Facilitationb) Interferencec) Successiond) Precautionary Principle81) What must one restore when restoring anecosystem?a) plantsb) animalsc) riversd) ecosystem functions82) Which of these does NOT have a negative effect onsuccession within an ecosystem?a) facilitationb) interferencec) chronic patchiness83) ________ successional species are quick togerminate and grow while ______ successionalspecies are slow but live longer:a) late, earlyb) early, latec) herbivore, autotrophicd) pioneer, colonizer