Solved by a verified expert:ECOL C-100 Final Exam1. The system responsible for defense against disease and harmful substances is the circulatory system endocrine system immune system excretory system skeletal system2. Human inputs of outdoor air pollutants occur mostly in rural areas in the mountains along the oceans in urban areas in the deserts3. Of the following materials, the MOST difficult to recycle is glass plastic paper aluminum cardboard4. Which of the following is the LEAST desirable from an environmental standpoint? repair reduce reuse compost recycle5. Photochemical smog is formed when primary pollutants interact with sunlight water vapor sulfur dioxide oxygen carbon6. Four of the following are means of transmitting the HIV virus from person to person, one is not such a means. Choose the one that is not. unsafe sex sneezing and coughing exposure to unsafe blood sharing needles by drug users infected mothers passing the virus to offspring before or during birth7. Most of earth’s weather occurs in the troposphere thermosphere mesosphere stratosphere tropopause8. Approximately 70% of the U.S.’s electronic waste (ewaste) ends up buried or incinerated recycled shipped to India shipped to China shipped to Africa9. Which of the following is NOT a major recent trend in urban population dynamics numbers and sizes of urban areas is growing very fast poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized mostly in developing countries urban growth is much lower in developed countries than developing countries proportion of world population living in urban areas is increasing decline in hypercities10. Chlorofluorocarbons are nontoxic corrosive odorous flammable reactive11. Which of the following is not a harmful effect of plastic bags spread malaria kills plants kills animals kills marine animals none of these12. Compost is MOST accurately described as manure landfill byproducts pure garbage soil conditioner and organic fertilizer humus13. When more roads are built, more cars are sold. Then more roads are built. This interaction exemplifies a(n) positive feedback loop negative feedback loop synergistic interaction antagonistic interaction negative, synergistic interaction14. The MOST energy-efficient beverage container on the market is reusable glass recyclable aluminum stainless steel recyclable plastic carton15. In cultural eutrophication, fish die from acid deposition suffocation due to depletion of dissolved oxygen toxic substances in the water increased sediment reducing habitats loss of space16. Typical rain in the eastern US is at least _____ times more acidic than what normal precipitation should be 2 5 10 20 5017. Refillable glass and PET beverage containers can be used ____ times before they become too damaged and need to be recycled. 3 5 7 10 1518. A good indicator of water quality is the number of ducks fish turtles coliform bacteria protozoa19. The Lyme disease bacterium is passed onto humans directly from foxes deer white mice filed mice ticks20. ________relates to the amount of a potentially toxic substance as it passes through food chains and webs. Toxicity Biomagnification Persistence Response Dose21. What do all volatile organic compounds have in common? All are carbon based. All are produced from manmade sources. All are emitted fro processing and/or burning fossil fuels. All are colorless, odorless reactive gases. All are naturally occurring and odorless gases found in rocks and vegetation.22. Environmentalists say that the best way to handle soft drink and beer containers is to use landfills use paper bottles use stainless steel cans use reusable glass bottles and PET containers and recycle bury them23. The five main types of hazards include all of the following, EXCEPT biological hazards natural hazards economic hazards physical hazards chemical hazards24. The effects of ozone depletion on humans includes all of the following, EXCEPT more cataracts suppression of immune system more brain cancers worse sunburns more skin cancers25. The atmospheric layer containing 75% of the mass of earth’s air is the thermosphere mesosphere stratosphere troposphere tropopause26. The process by which individuals and groups tries to influence or control the policies and actions of governments is known as lobbying policy making politics all of these answers none of these answers26. The process by which individuals and groups tries to influence or control the policies and actions of governments is known aslobbyingpolicy makingpoliticsall of these answersnone of these answers27. A lawsuits filed by a corporation or developer against citizens who publicly criticize a business for an activity is calleda frivolous lawsuita nuisance lawsuita statutory suita regulatory suita SLAPP28. Countries whose environment has been severely degraded may be characterized by any of the following, EXCEPTdeterioration of vital infrastructureincreased immigrationallegiance to warlordsbreakdown of law and orderviolent internal conflict or civil war29. Levying taxes on each unit of pollution discharged into the air or water is an example oftradable pollution rightscharging user feesregulationgreen taxessubsidies for beneficial actions30. Markets do well in the production and distribution of private goods, but are not so good ataccumulating resourcesdistribution of resourcespublic servicesprotecting sources of informationdeveloping strategies31. Which of the following activities would NOT be permitted in a National Wildlife Refuge?oil and gas developmenthunting and fishingmilitary activitiesfarming and grazingall of these are permitted32. The body of statements defining what is acceptable environmental behavior for individuals, groups, businesses and nations, iscommon lawadministrative lawstatutory lawenvironmental lawcivil law33. Almost ____ of American households have no reasonable access to bus or train service.10%25%42%50%75%34. Which of the following is NOT one of the guideline for living more sustainably?Do not degrade or deplete the earth’s natural ecological damageDo not waste matter and energy resources.protect biodiversityEncourage more technological answers to problems.35. Ecological and environmental economists consider which of the following to be a basic cause of environmental degradation, pollution, poor health, and premature death?taxes on wages, income, wealthusing tradable permits or rights to pollutegovernment subsidieslaws and regulations to prevent pollutionpoverty36. What was the major point learned in the 1991 Biosphere 2 experiment?How to recycle waste and wastewater.How to grow a rainforest in an enclosed area.CO2 recycling is really difficultHumans cannot engineer life-supporting systems as well as nature.Extinction is inevitable.37. Participation in the environmental problems we face is often accompanied by falling into one or more traps. Which of the following is one of these traps?unsustainable pessimismblind technology optimismprinciple of enoughnessparalysis by analysisfaith in simple, easy answers38. Which branch of government is responsible for overseeing the agencies that carry out government policies?judicialexecutivelegislativeadministrativemilitary39. A team of ecologists and economists estimated that the ecological services provided by the earth’s forests are worth at least ___ a year?$1.2 trillion$2.7 trillion$3.8 trillion$4.7 trillion$5.3 trillion40. New and more innovative business replacing older ones that can no longer thrive under changing economic conditions is known asfree market systemeconomic competitioneconomic successionneoclassical economicsenvironmental economics41. Which country is one of the leaders in making a shift to more environmentally sustainable society by developing a national green plan?The United States Switzerland Japan Australia The Netherlands42. Since 1980, the gap between the rich and the poor hasdisappearedincreasedstayed the samedecreasedstayed the same and then decreased 43. Which of the following worldviews would include the concept that when we use the earth’s natural capital we are borrowing from the earth and future generations?planetary managementstewardshipfree-market school spaceship earth environmental wisdom44. Which of the following worldviews understands the earth to be a complex machine that we can understand, dominate, change, and manage for everyone’s good without overloading natural systems?spaceship-earth planetary management environmental wisdom biocentricstewardship45. Which of the following countries did not adopt Agenda 21, the global agenda for sustainable development in the 21st century?RussiaEnglandUnited StatesAustraliaCanada46. Who of the following is responsible for establishing the Village Bank and its policy of microloans?Denis HayesAldo LeopoldMuhammad YunusWangari MaathaiTyler Miller47. The measurement of the annual economic value of all goods and services within a country is called the GDPGNPHPIGNHNIH48. Which of the following is part of the environmental wisdom worldview?Success is managing the earth’s systems for ourselves.Success is managing the earth by dominating, changing, and managing the earth for everyone.Success is economic growth, development, better management, and technology.Success is learning how nature sustains itself and integrating this into our actions.Success is understanding nature to dominate, change, and manage it.49. Hiding the harmful environmental costs from the market prices of goods and services causes all of the following, EXCEPThides costs from consumershinder development of environmentally beneficial green goods and servicespromotes pollutionpromotes environmental degradationcauses increases in prices50. Most environmental lawsuits arenuisance suitsregulatory suitscivil suitsclass action suitscriminal suits51. Sick Building Syndrome is linked to all of the following, EXCEPTheadachescoughing and sneezinglung cancerchronic fatigueburning eyes52. During the mid-1900s, the spread of malaria decreased sharply from all of the following, EXCEPTdraining swamplandsdraining marshesspraying breeding areas with DDT and other pesticidesusing drugs to kill the parasites in the bloodstreama new vaccine53. Without changing what we are doing to the environment, the projected amount of warming by the year 2100 is2 degrees C3 degrees C4 degrees C5 degrees C6 degrees C54. Lake Washington, near Seattle, was degraded by the growth of which of the following?coliform bacteriaprotozoanssnailsaquatic plantscyanobacteria55. What is the big deal about the atmosphere getting a few degrees warmer?may raise the ocean levelmay kill off the coral in the oceansmay cause warm weather plants to move further north or southmay move weather patterns aroundmay cause a very rapid global change in climate56. Some individuals can be responsive and highly susceptible to a number of different toxins. This is referred to asan acute effecta chronic effectmultiple chemical sensitivityan antagonistic reactiona synergistic reaction57. Which of the following NOT a reason the incidence of tuberculosis is increasing?strains of the TB bacterium that have developed resistance to antibioticspopulation growthweakened immune systems from the spread of AIDSair traveleffects of global warming58. In general, acid deposition has harmful effects for terrestrial ecosystems when it falls below a pH level of3. Which of the following is not a characteristic of PCBs?is a carcinogenis a teratogenbreakdown very slowlyare found almost everywherenone of these answers60. A person experiencing dizziness after using a strong household cleaner is showinga chronic effecta sensitive effecta hypersensitive effectan acute effecta chronic effect61. Climate models predict that global warming will be most severe in which regions?desert regionsequatorial regionspolar regionsocean regionsland masses62. Harmful chemicals emitted directly into the air from natural processes and human activities are calledsecondary pollutantssmogphotochemical smogtertiary pollutantsprimary pollutants63. According to a 2009 EPA report, between 1980 and 2008 the combined emissions of six major air pollutants decreased by how much?17%23%36%49%54%64. The system responsible for growth, reproductive development, and much of our behavior is thecirculatory systemendocrine systemimmune systemexcretory systemdigestive system65. Which of the following is NOT a strategy for reducing the threat of climate change?Improve energy efficiency.Shift from fossil fuels to a mix of carbon-free energy resources.Stop cutting down tropical forests.Capture and store as much carbon dioxide as possible.use of fossil fuels.66. Over the past 200 years, the acidity of the ocean surface has increased by what percentage?10%20%30%40%50%67. Which of the following is NOT one of the world’s leading greenhouse gas producer?IndiaEuropean UnionChinaBrazilnone of these answers68. All of the following chemicals are ozone-depleters, EXCEPTmethyl bromidePCBshalonsmethyl chloroformCFCs69. Malaria is spread bysnailsfliescontaminated fecescertain types of mosquitoesbacteria70. Which of the following infectious diseases is NOT among the five most deadly?pneumonia and flumeaslesmalariatuberculosisHIV/AIDS71. Acid deposition is best classified as alocal problemstate problemregional problemnational probleminternational problem72. In a warmer world, which of the following organisms are likely to be hardest hit?polar bearsinsectsweedsfungiall of these answers73. All of the following are non-transmissible diseases EXCEPTheart diseasemost cancersMeaslesmalnutritionasthma74. The correct sequence of layers of the atmosphere from innermost to outermost ismesosphere—stratosphere—thermosphere—tropospheretroposphere—stratosphere—mesosphere—thermospherestratosphere—thermosphere—troposphere—mesospherethermosphere—stratosphere—mesosphere—tropospherethermosphere—mesosphere—stratosphere—troposphere75. The effects of neurotoxins can result in all of the following, EXCEPTbehavioral changeslearning disabilitiesheart diseaseattention deficit disorderdeath76. Vegetation improves the quality of life in urban areas by all of the following means, EXCEPT providing oxygen providing wildlife habitat absorbing air pollutants warming the air reducing soil erosion77. Levying taxes on each unit of pollution discharged into the air or water is an example of tradable pollution rights charging user fees regulation green taxes subsidies for beneficial actions78. The amount of solid waste produced in the United States each year would fill a convoy of garbage trucks stretching around the world almost 2 times 4 times 6 times 8 times 10 times79. The Great Lakes possess ____% of all the surface fresh water in the United States. 35 95 75 55 4580. Tradable environmental permits have all of the following advantages, EXCEPT flexibility easy to administer self-monitoring of emissions can promote cheating permit prices determined by market transactions encourages pollution prevention and waste reduction81. Which has NOT been a major factor promoting urban sprawl in the United States? A surplus of rural open space is still available. Federal loan guarantees to WWII veterans. The Homestead Act still gives land cheaply away in many areas of the country. Cheap gasoline. Poor urban planning.82. Which of the following aquatic ecosystems may be most capable of diluting, dispersing, and degrading large amounts of sewage, sludge, and oil? estuary swiftly flowing stream deep-water ocean coastal parts of the ocean slow-moving river83. Which of the following is a point source of water pollution? offshore oil wells livestock feedlots urban lands croplands parking lots84. Implementing sound principles concerning environmental issues policy makers around the world should follow all of the following principles, EXCEPT make decisions that help to prevent a problem from occurring or becoming worse Support scientific research to understand environmental changes. understand nature and how our actions affect nature encourage wide-spread use of energy alternative or technologies with low net-energy yield. establish environmental policy so that no group of people bears unfair share of burden caused by pollution85. New and more innovative businesses replacing older ones that can no longer thrive under changing economic conditions is known as? free market system economic competition economic succession economic transition globalization86. The natural nutrient enrichment of a shallow lake, estuary, or slow moving stream is called oligotrophy runoff upwellings red tides eutrophication87. Advantages of automobiles include all of the following, EXCEPT symbols of power mobility air pollution basis of much of world’s economy convenience of use88. Motor vehicle drivers paying for the full cost of the harmful effects of fossil fuel use is the application of the precautionary principle public access principle human rights principle polluter-pays principle environmental justice principle89. The U.S. population is shifting to the north and east shifting to the north and west shifting to the south and east shifting to the south and west shifting to the north and south90. Which of the following is NOT a principle of new urbanism? Provide increased money for highway improvements to avoid traffic congestion. Make most places in community within a 10 minute walk. Provide mixed land uses in a small geographical area. Emphasize beauty and aesthetics in architectural design. Create development of land with minimal environmental impact.91. Nearly __________ of Americans live in urban areas. 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%92. Bioplastics differ from convention plastics in that. they are made from biologically based products they break down slower they are heavier require more energy to produce made from petrochemical products93. In the United States, ____% of all urban transportation is by car. 58 68 78 88 9894. One fish in _____ taken from the Great Lakes is unsafe for human consumption. ten seven five four three95. One way to attempt to deal with the solid wastes we create is to attempt to reduce the environmental impact without trying to reduce the amount of waste produced. This is called waste reduction waste prevention secondary pollution prevention primary pollution prevention waste management96. In 2006 the U.S. government subsidies to fossil fuel and nuclear industries totalled? $12 billion $26 billion $39 billion $47 billion $56 billion97. A free-market system operating without government interference requires that sellers not coerce or mislead sellers or competitors provide all the goods and services possible not include all their indirect costs in the prices increase profits by pushing others out of business use all resources to their fullest98. Large masses of floating plastics in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans are known as Great Atlantic and Pacific Garbage Patches Atlantic and Pacific Plastic Vortexes Atlantic and Pacific Plastic Hotspots Atlantic and Pacific Plastic Black Holes None of these answers99. With 4.6% of the world’s population, the United States produces about _____ of the world’s solid waste. one-tenth one-fifth one-fourth one-third one-half100. A body of water can be depleted of its oxygen by viruses and parasitic worms biodegradable wastes sediments and suspended matter organic compounds such as oil, plastics, solvents, and detergents inorganic wastes