Solved by a verified expert:DNA REPLICATION1. Define:a. replication,b. leading and lagging strands,c. replication fork,d. replication origin,e. template, semi-conservative method2. List the DNA purine and pyrimidine bases.3. In which chemical direction does replication occur?4. Where in the cell does replication occur?a. prokaryotesb. eukaryotes5. DNA nucleotide: phosphate + sugar + N-baseName the sugar used in DNA.List the four N-bases that are used in DNA.6. Approximately, how much time is required for replication tooccur in: a. prokaryotes?b. eukaryotes?7. Typically, how many replication origins are formed in:a. prokaryotes?b. eukaryotes?8. In replication, what do the following enzymes do?a. helicasesb. single-strand binding proteinsc. DNA polymerasesd. DNA ligase9. What are Okazaki fragments?What is the length (# of nucleotides) of these fragments?What enzyme joins these fragments together?10. Understand the replication process.11. Describe work done by:James Watson and Francis Crick.Chargaff (Chargaff’s rule). Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins12. Replicate: 5’ATG 3’CHAPTER 15PROTEIN SYNTHESIS1. Define:a. transcription,b. reverse transcription,c. reverse transcriptase,d. RNA polymerases,e. codon and anticodon,f. sense and nonsense codons,g. terminator and promotor regions,h. transcription unit, polyribosome2. List the RNA purine and pyrimidine bases.3. In which chemical direction do the following occur?a. transcriptionb. translation4. Describe the major types of cellular RNA.a. mRNAb. rRNAc. tRNA d. snRNA (in eukaryotes only)5. List the start codon and the amino acid it codes for.List the three stop (nonsense) codons.6. Where in the cell do transcription and translation occur ina. prokaryotesb. eukaryotes7. RNA nucleotide: phosphate + sugar + N-baseName the sugar used in RNA.List the four N-bases that are used in RNA.8. Before translation occurs in eukaryotic cells, the pre-mRNAmust be processed to form the mRNA. Understand the process.What are introns and exons?9. In the priming process:a. what is a primer?b. what function does primase serve?10. Why are RNA polymerases considered more versatile thanDNA polymerases? 11. Understand the three stages of translation:a. initiationb. elongationc. termination12. What are the two subunits of a ribosome?13. Explain the wobble concept.Adenine can be modified into inosine (I) and carried by __RNA.Inosine can bind to ____, ____, or ____.14. Explain, :redundancy of the code."15. Transcribe and translate: 5’ATG 3’16. compare: mutation, mutagens, mutagenesis17. Describe the following ways in which eukaryotes canacquire new genotypes.a. crossing-over b. mutations18. Describe the following ways in which prokaryotes canacquire new genotypes.a. mutationsb. conjugationc. transductiond. transformation19. Describe the following types of mutations:a. base substitution1. nonsense mutation2. missense mutation3. neutral mutationb. deletion and insertion