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315: Principles of Epidemiology
Part 1
Calculations and Interpretations: Answer
the following questions in the space provided.
Show all of your work.
Evidence of an increased risk
of lung cancer associated with cigarette smoking was sought by Doll and
Hill. In one study, 649 lung cancer
cases were matched by age, and gender to 649 controls; 647 of the cases and 622
of the control had a history of smoking cigarettes.
Name the type of study.Create the appropriate 2X2
table for the study. (2 points)Lung Cancer ControlsSmokers 647 622Nonsmokers 2
27Total 649 649Calculate the appropriate
measure of association for the study. (4 points)Interpret the results. (2 points)

In another study, the smoking
habits of 34,445 male physicians were obtained by mailed questionnaires. Deaths among these physicians over the
subsequent years were identified though contact with the office of the
Registrar General. The death rates from
lung cancer of these physicians classified by smoking habits were :
Standardized Death Rates per 1000 Persons Aged 35 or More per Year
Nonsmokers 0.07
Cigarette Smokers 0.96

Name the type of study. (2

Calculate the Relative Risk for
smokers as compared to nonsmokers. (6 points)Interpret the results (2

Annual Death
Rates per 100,000 Persons
Exposure Category Lung Cancer Coronary Heart Disease
Heavy Smokers 166 599
Nonsmokers 7

Calculate the relative risk
from Lung Cancer Mortality for Heavy Smokers compared to non smokers. ( 4 points)

Calculate the attributable risk
of Lung Cancer from smoking. (4 points)Interpret the results. (2

Calculate the percent attributable risk of Coronary Heart Disease
due to smoking (4 points)

Interpret the results. (2

Convert the following incidence
rates to attributable risk using the additive model: (5 points)
Incidence Rates Relative
Factor A Factor

_ + _ +
Factor B – 3.0 9.0
+ 15.0 21.00

Calculate the concordance rate
for the following data: (5 points)
Twin 1
Has Leukemia Does
Not Have Leukemia
Twin 2 Has
Leukemia 14 1
Not Have Leukemia 26 36