Solved by a verified expert:A newly identified gene is missing or inactivated in 60 per cent of human breast cancersand about 50 per cent of lung cancers, US researchers have discovered.This apparently critical gene is the most important of only a few genes clearly associatedwith sporadic, rather than hereditary, breast cancer, says Masaaki Hamaguchi of the Cold SpringHarbor Laboratory in New York, who led the work. Sporadic disease accounts for more than 90per cent of breast and other cancers.”This is a completely new type of tumour-suppressor gene. We don’t have a real cluewhat this gene is doing yet in the normal cell – we have just opened a door to a new field,” saysHamaguchi.”The question is: how many cancers can be treated just by turning on this gene?” he says.”We know that more than half of breast cancers have to turn it off, so I believe the number wouldbe high.” Hamaguchi thinks treatments based on switching on the gene, dubbed DBC2, could beavailable in three or four years.Frequent deletionHamaguchi’s team first compared the genetic make-up of breast cancer and normal cells.They noticed frequent differences in one region on chromosome eight. “We checked it out indetail and found a very small region is frequently deleted in the breast cancer cells. And wewent on to identify six genes in this region,” he says.Of the six, two were uncharacterized. In one, DBC2, Hamaguchi’s team found frequentdifferences between the healthy and cancerous cells. “At this point, we thought it might be veryinteresting,” he says.They found that only about 50 per cent of 19 breast cancer samples and 14 lung cancersamples were expressing DBC2, compared with 100 per cent of healthy controls. And mutationsin DBC2 were more frequent in breast cancer cells than mutations in other tumour suppressorgenes previously linked to the disease. These show up in only up to about 30 per cent of casesNew structureFurther work confirmed that when breast cancer cells lacking DBC2 are forced to expressthe protein, the growth of these cells is inhibited. Much more work is now needed to characterisethe normal role of the gene, says Hamaguchi.”This is not like other genes. We knew this type of structure existed, because it is in thedatabase, but no gene like this has been studied,” he says. “Even forgetting about cancer and justtalking about biology, this is a very interesting gene.”Hamaguchi and his colleagues have worked for many years on genes involved in breastcancer. Co-researcher Mary-Claire King at the University of Washington, predicted the locationof the first gene linked to hereditary breast cancer, BRAC1, in 1990. But teams at the Universityof Utah, Myriad Genetics in Salt Lake City and the US government’s National Institute ofEnvironmental Health Sciences in North Carolina were the first to isolate the gene. Mutations inBRCA1 and BRCA2 account for only about five per cent of breast cancers.Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. About 40,000women die from the disease every year in the US alone.Here is the scenario: You are presenting this case to a panel of genetic testers. The team is composed of specialists.Please use the questions in the assignment requirements as your outline for your presentation.You can use the questions as well as your questions. The answers or reply must be part of your presentationPlease adhere to the APA in everything that you write.Here are some questions:Do you think that the woman has enough information and resources to decide on the testing and the possible surgical solution.For the assignment, you will have to think about what the ethical dilemma is and why it presents such an ethical problem for the individual involved. You can use the questions as an outline for apowerpoint presentation of no more than 20 slides and no less than 15
Expert answer:BIOLOGY 10 101 Assignment 2016
by | Sep 2, 2021 | Uncategorized
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