Solved by a verified expert:Biological Anthropology “QUIZ”Why does the fossil record have gaps and fragments?a. There is only a small chance of a fossil forming, being preserved, and then found millions of years later.b. The remains of animals are found deep in the unreachable layers of the earth.c. A divine creator stepped in and assisted in the process of evolution.d. Scientists have destroyed the evidence of the fossils that belong in these gaps.Determining the actual base sequence of a gene is calleda. Protein electrophoresis.b. RNA sequencing.c. DNA sequencing.d. Target sequencing.Which of the following BEST describes the purpose of biological anthropology?a. Understanding human variation through genetics and cultureb. Categorizing human variation through social and behavioral sciencesc. Recognizing human variation through history and artifactsd. Examining human variation through research and evolutionWhat happens when a mother cell divides into two daughter cells?a. Genetic material is deposited into one of the cells.b. No genetic material is deposited into the cells.c. Genetic material is deposited into each daughter cell.d. No genetic material is accessible during this stage.What is heritability?a. A given trait’s incidence within a particular populationb. A comparison of the phenotypes of fraternal and identical twinsc. The proportion of a given trait’s variation caused by geneticsd. The variation of a phenotype that is caused solely by geneticsWhat aspect of Mendel’s law of segregation does the Punnett Square enable us to see more clearly?a. Which gene is dominantb. Possible phenotypes of offspringc. Which gene is recessived. Possible genotypes of offspringWhen would a mutation be considered “good”?a. When it becomes common in a large populationb. When it enhances an organism’s chances of survivalc. When it affects appearance but not fitnessd. When it is directly related to chromosome structureHow does a dominant, yet often fatal, condition like Huntington’s disease remain the population?a. The disease usually first presents in middle age, after many people have reproducesb. It is a sex-linked trait, so it tends to skip generationsc. You need two copies of a dominant allele in order to present the dominant phenotyped. This condition is directly influenced by the environmentWhat do post-Mendelian genetic concepts such as quantitative variation, polygenic traits, and pleiotropy suggest about the possible future course of genetic research?a. Geneticists need to study how new gene combinations can be assembled on recombinant chromosomes to cure genetic diseases.b. Geneticists need to develop better ways to examine traits with different and non-overlapping phenotypic variants.c. Geneticists need to study how genes work together to produce complex phenotypes in the context of complex environments.d. Geneticists need to need to develop better ways to measure genetic heritability between different ethnic populations.Where does variation come from?a. Mutationb. Gene flowc. Founder’s effectd. Sexual selectionGene flow is __________________.a. The movement of genes between generations.b. The movement of genes between relatives.c. The movement of genes between populations.d. The movement of genes between species.What is the ultimate filter for which traits are maintained by natural selection?a. The environmentb. Mate preferencec. Social approvald. Random chanceNatural selection favors particular ____________.a. Allelesb. Genoesc. Genotypesd. PhenotypesAccording to the biological species concept, speciation is the formation of one or more new species through ____________________.a. Habitat modificationb. Reproductive isolationc. Behavioral adaptationd. Genetic engineeringHow do individuals benefit from inclusive fitness?a. They help others of higher social status, which improves their rank in the groupb. They help others who share their genes, thus effectively passing on some of their own genes to the next generationc. They help other individuals who can be relied upon to return the favor in the futured. They help others as a way of learning a new skill, which will ultimately help them survive and reproduceIt was noted that the finches on Galápagos developed longer, stronger beaks during periods of draught. This is an example of ____________.a. Sexual selectionb. Disruptive selectionc. Stabilizing selectiond. Directional selectionWhich variable has an impact on the frequency of sickle cell anemia?a. The color of an individual’s skinb. The presence of malariac. The age of a populationd. The incidence of HIVWhat did early approaches to anthropology mainly focus on?a. Race and racial classificationsb. Human evolutionc. Societally defined group designationsd. Natural selectionWhat is thought to be a selective agent for cystic fibrosis, creating a balanced polymorphism in some populations?a. Malariab. Sickle-cell anemiac. Tuberculosisd. InfluenzaWhich group of people is lactose intolerant?a. Children with the dominant allele for lactaseb. Northern European childrenc. Only Asian adultsd. Most adult humansWho is most likely to find it useful to use group designations such as “American Black” and “American White”?a. A geographer cataloging the settlement of populations in Central and SouthAmericab. A geneticist looking at gene flow between Africa and different North and SouthAmerican populationsc. An anthropologist who is studying human evolution in the United Statesd. A medical scientist who is investigating a disease in the United States