Solved by a verified expert:EXPERIMENTCells: Prokaryotic andEukaryoticHands-On Labs, Inc. Version 42-0039-10-02Review the safety materials and wear goggles whenworking with chemicals. Read the entire exercisebefore you begin. Take time to organize the materialsyou will need and set aside a safe work space inwhich to complete the exercise.Experiment Summary:You will learn about cell theory and cell structuresof eukaryotes and prokaryotes. You will differentiateplant and animal cells and identify the componentsof cells and their functions. You will also view variousbacteria, protist, plant, and animal cells.www.HOLscience.com1© Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticLearning ObjectivesUpon completion of this laboratory, you will be able to:●●Outline the key components of a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.●●Paraphrase the function of a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic features.●●Outline generalized structures of plant, animal, and bacteria cells.●●State the three parts of cell theory.●●Observe virtual slide images of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and identify and label their keyfeatures.●●Classify cells as prokaryotic or eukaryotic and compare and contrast features of each.●●Summarize the key functions of cell organelles.●●Classify organisms as prokaryotic or eukaryotic, and use microscope observations to justifyclassifications.●●Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic features.Time Allocation: 3 hourswww.HOLscience.com2©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticMaterialsHOL Supplied MaterialsQuantity Item Description1Virtual Microscope*1Virtual Slides to view:1- Slide – Amoeba, Stained1- Slide – Cheek Smear, Human1- Slide – Onion Root Tip Mitosis1- Slide – Spirogyra*The virtual microscope is included in your digital content.Note: To fully and accurately complete all lab exercises, you will need access to:1. A computer to upload digital camera images.2. Basic photo editing software such as Microsoft Word® or PowerPoint®, to add labels, leaderlines, or text to digital photos.3. Software such as “Snipping Tool,” “5-Clicks,” or any similar program that allows you to capturedigital images of content on your screen.4. Subject-specific textbook or appropriate reference resources from lecture content or othersuggested resources.Note: The packaging and/or materials in this LabPaq kit may differ slightly from that which is listedabove. For an exact listing of materials, refer to the Contents List included in your LabPaq kit.www.HOLscience.com3©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticBackgroundAnimal Cells, Plant Cells and Cell TheoryAll living things are composed of cells, the basic structural and functional unit of living organismsthat are capable of independent functioning. Cells vary in size, generally ranging from 10 µm to100 µm, with molecules being the smallest and plant cells being the largest in size. See Figure 1.Figure 1. Plant and animal cell size as compared to molecules, viruses, and bacteria.One of the basic principles of biology, proposed by Theodor Schwann and Matthais Schleiden in1836, is cell theory which is defined in the following three statements:●●All living organisms are composed of one or more cells, which can be unicellular (one cell)or multicellular (more than one cell).●●The cell is the basic unit of life.●●New cells arise from pre-existing cells.Features central to the understanding of cells are illustrated in diagrams of generalized plantand animal cells, as shown in Figures 2 and 3 respectively. The functions of these features aredescribed in Table 1.www.HOLscience.com4©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticFigure 2. General structure of a plant cell. Notice the presence of the membrane-boundnucleus. © udaixwww.HOLscience.com5©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticFigure 3. Generalized structure of an animal cell. Notice the presence of the membrane-boundnucleus. © udaixwww.HOLscience.com6©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticTable 1. Cell Terms and Definitions.FeatureCapsuleCell MembraneCell WallChloroplastCiliumCytoplasmCytosolEndoplasmicReticulumFimbriaeFlagellumGolgi ApparatusLysosomeMitochondrionNucleusRibosomeDescriptionThe sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of various prokaryotes,protecting the cell from drying out.The semi-permeable, living membrane of a cell, separating the interiorcytoplasm of the cell from the surrounding (outside) environment. Animal,plant, prokaryotic, and fungal cells all contain a cell membrane. It is theoutermost surface of animal cells.Provides strength and rigidity to the cell. The outermost surface of all celltypes, except for animal cells and protozoa.The site for photosynthesis in algae and plant cells. An organelle thatcontains photosynthetic pigments, including chlorophylls.Short, small, hair-like organelles which protrude from the surface of someeukaryotic cells and use rhythmic beating to promote locomotion.Gel-like substance of the cell located within the cell membrane.Encompasses the entire contents of the cell, except the nucleus.The fluid component of the cytoplasm. Cytosol surrounds the organelles ineukaryotes, and is the location for chemical reactions in prokaryotes.A network of membranes (smooth and rough), located in the cytoplasm,that forms a net-like array of channels that function to transport materials.(Eukaryotes)Short, fringe-like appendages of prokaryotic cells that function to help thecell to adhere to a substrate or another cell.Long, whip-like appendage that protrudes from the surface of a cell andspecializes in locomotion. The flagella of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellsdiffer from one another in both structure and function.Flat sac involved in intracellular secretion and transport of moleculessynthesized in the cell. (Eukaryotes)Membrane-bound organelle that contains digestive enzymes and acts asa cell’s “garbage disposal,” digesting foreign materials and worn-out cellcomponents.The organelle that supports energy production through cell metabolism(citric acid cycle and electron transport). Present in all cells except bacteriacells. The inner membrane forms convoluted folds called cristae whichseparate the mitochondrion into two compartments: the inner matrix andouter compartment.Membrane-bound organelle that contains the hereditary material of thecell (DNA). (Only found in eukaryotes).An organelle located in the cytoplasm (nucleolus) that functions as the siteof protein synthesis. Composed of two units: rRNA and protein molecules.(Found in all cells)www.HOLscience.com7©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticEukaryotesCells are divided into one of two major classifications, eukaryotic or prokaryotic. A eukaryoticcell contains a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles. An organelle is a membrane-boundstructure within a cell that provides a specific cellular function. It is the presence of a nucleusthat gives eukaryotes their name, and is derived from the Greek words eu, meaning “good” andkaryon, which means “nut or kernel.” Organisms that contain eukaryotic cells are referred to aseukaryotes. All large organisms, including plants, fungi, and animals, are examples of eukaryotes.Some unicellular organisms are also eukaryotes. See Figures 4 and 5.Figure 4. Eukaryotes. A. Leaf surface of spiderwort. © Jubal Harshaw B. Volvox colonies. © JubalHarshaw C. Vorticella protozoan. © Jubal HarshawFigure 5. Phylogenic tree. Notice that humans are eukaryotes, as noted by the “you are here”arrow in the tree. Image courtesy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, adapted fromWoese et al. 1990www.HOLscience.com8©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticProkaryotesA cell that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus is a prokaryotic cell. The word prokaryote is acombination of the Greek words pro, which means “before,” and karyon, which means “nut orkernel.” Organisms that contain prokaryotic cells are referred to as prokaryotes. Most prokaryotesare single-celled, although some are multicellular. Bacteria and archaea are examples ofprokaryotes. Archaea was not discovered as a major domain of life until the late 1970s by Dr.Carl Woese at the University of Illinois. Archaea was discovered in the hot springs of YellowstoneNational Park, Wyoming. See Figure 6. Archaea inhabits some of the most extreme environmentson Earth, surviving at temperatures over 100°C. The general structure of a bacterium is shownin Figure 7.Figure 6. Archaea in a geothermal pool in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. © James Mattilwww.HOLscience.com9©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticFigure 7. Generalized structure of a bacterial cell. Notice the lack of a membrane-boundnucleus, as the DNA (both chromosomal and plasmid) is located in the cytoplasm. © ducu59usBacteria are very small, unicellular microorganisms which appear singly or in chains. Bacteriaexist in one of three shapes: spherical (cocci), rod-shaped (bacilli), or spiral/curved (spirilla). SeeFigure 8.Figure 8. Bacteria shapes. A. Spherical (cocci). Courtesy of CDC, Janice Haney Carr B. Rod-shaped(bacilli). Courtesy of CDC, William A. Clark C. Spiral (spirilla). Courtesy of CDCThere are trillions of different types of bacteria, many that are helpful to humans, and many thatare harmful. For example, Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E.coli) are often discussed in newsstories for their food-borne related illnesses in humans, while Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, andtuberculosis are common bacterial infections in humans. See Figure 9. An example of bacteriumthat is helpful to humans is probiotics. Probiotics are live microorganisms, primarily bacteria,which help to promote healthy bacteria, aiding the immune and digestive systems.www.HOLscience.com10©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticSince 1975, as part of a public healthaction, turtles smaller than 4 inches havebeen banned in the United States as a resultof their high risk of spreading disease. Turtlesare commonly carriers of Salmonella, and arenot suggested as pets for children under five,people with compromised immune systems,or the elderly.Figure 9. Common bacteria that affect humans. © ducu59uswww.HOLscience.com11©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticExercise 1: Comparison of Bacteria, Plant, and AnimalCellsIn this exercise, you will compare the features of bacteria, plant, and animal cells.1. For each of the features listed in Data Table 1 of your Lab Report Assistant, indicate thecorresponding letter(s) in Figure 10.Note: Cytoplasm is included as an example.Figure 10. Labeled bacteria, plant, and animal cells. © udaix © ducu59uswww.HOLscience.com12©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic2. For each structure in Data Table 1, indicate whether the structure is found in bacteria, plantcells, and/or animal cells.3. For each structure in Data Table 1, indicate whether the structure is found prokaryotic cells,eukaryotic cells, or both.QuestionsA. List the features that are found in eukaryotes but not prokaryotes. What are advantagesprovided by these features?B. List the features found in prokaryotes but not eukaryotes. What are advantages provided bythese features?www.HOLscience.com13©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticExercise 2: Observing Prokaryotes and EukaryotesIn this exercise, you will observe a variety of histology slides of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.You will classify the organism and label its structural features.Note: The magnification of the ocular lens (eyepiece) for the V-Scope program is 10X. The totalmagnification factor of a microscope is calculated by multiplying the magnification of the ocular lenswith the magnification of the objective lens. When using the V-Scope the total magnification factoris approximate, as the resolution of your device’s screen may slightly increase or decrease the totalmagnification.1. Open the “V-Scope” folder.2. Open “START_MICROSCOPE”.Note: Open the “Quick Start Guide” for a diagram showing how to use the V-Scope program Readthe “Instructions” provided in the dark gray circle before clicking on the slide.3. Click on the red “power” button to turn on the microscope light.4. View the slide labeled “Spirogyra” with the virtual microscope. View the slide with the 1X, 4X,10X, and 20X objective lenses.Note: If you would like to move the slide on the stage, left click on the image. The cursor will turninto a hand. While holding the button down, you can move the mouse and drag the image.5. Use the Background section, a textbook, and/or an Internet source to determine if theSpirogyra is a protist, plant, animal, or bacteria. Record in Data Table 2 of your Lab ReportAssistant.6. Use the Background section, a textbook, and/or an Internet source to determine if theSpirogyra is a prokaryote or eukaryote and record in Data Table 2.7. Make observations of the specimen including: color(s), shape(s), general size, unique features,obvious visible structures, etc. Record your general observations in Data Table 2.8. Capture an image of the slide showing as many features as possible with software such as“Snipping Tool,” “5-Clicks,” or any similar program that you would like to use that will allowyou to capture a digital image of content on your screen. See Figure 11.www.HOLscience.com14©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticFigure 11. Capture a digital image of content on your screen. A. Identify area to capture. B.Highlight the area. C. Copy the captured image.9. Using an image software program, digitally label as many features as possible. Refer to theappendix entitled “How to Label an Image” for guidance with labeling an image.Note: Features to look for and label include (if applicable): nucleus, cell wall, chloroplast, nucleolus,endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasm, vacuole, cell membrane, etc.10. Resize and insert the labeled image into Data Table 3 of your Lab Report Assistant. Refer tothe appendix entitled “Resizing an Image” for guidance with resizing an image.11. View the slide labeled “Cheek Smear, Human” with the virtual microscope. View the slidewith the 1X, 4X, 10X, and 20X objective lenses.12. Repeat steps 5-10.13. View the slide labeled “Amoeba, Stained” with the virtual microscope. View the slide with the1X, 4X, 10X, and 20X objective lenses.14. Repeat steps 5-10.15. View the slide labeled “Onion Root Tip Mitosis” with the virtual microscope. View the slidewith the 1X, 4X, 10X, and 20X objective lenses.16. Repeat steps 5-10.17. View the slide photograph of “Mixed Prokaryote & Eukaryote”, provided in Data Table 3.18. As this slide contains both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, skip steps 5-6 (as noted by the grayedout boxes in Data Table 2). Make general observations of the slide image and record in DataTable 2. For this slide, observe and record the color of the prokaryotes and the color of theeukaryotes.19. Copy the slide photograph “Mixed Prokaryote & Eukaryote”, by selecting the image, rightclicking on the image, and selecting the “copy” function. Paste a copy of the image into animage software program.20. Using an image software program, digitally label as many features as possible. Make sure thatyou label the features of at least 1 prokaryote and 1 eukaryote on the slide.www.HOLscience.com15©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic21. Resize and insert the labeled photograph into Data Table 3.22. View the slide photograph of “Bacteria Smear”, provided in Data Table 3.23. Repeat steps 5-7. In the “General Observations” section, record the bacteria shapes presenton the slide.24. Copy the slide photograph of “Bacteria Smear” and paste a copy of the image into an imagesoftware program.25. Digitally label at least 1 spherical (cocci), 1 rod-shaped (bacilli), and 1 spiral/curved (spirilla)bacteria.26. Resize and insert the labeled photograph into Data Table 3.27. When you are finished uploading photos and data into your Lab Report Assistant, save yourfile correctly and zip the file so you can send it to your instructor as a smaller file. Refer to theappendix entitled, “Saving Correctly,” and the appendix entitled, “Zipping Files” for guidancewith saving the Lab Report Assistant correctly and zipping the file.QuestionsA. Describe the characteristics of the Mixed Prokaryote and Eukaryote slide photograph thatallowed you to identify the prokaryotes and the eukaryotes. Use your observations in DataTable 2 to help explain your answer.B. Describe the similarities and differences between a cell wall and a cell membrane.C. How many features were you able to label when viewing the Bacteria Smear slide photograph?Explain how the size of the bacteria affects the ability to view specific features.D. Explain the function of cytoplasm, mitochondrion, cell membrane, flagellum, fimbriae, andnucleus. Identify any of these features that are specific to a prokaryotic or eukaryotic.www.HOLscience.com16©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticHands-On Labs, Inc. Version 42-0039-10-02Lab Report AssistantThis document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab ReportAssistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data tablesthat should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’ writing of labreports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an instructor.Exercise 1: Comparison of Bacteria, Plant, and AnimalCellsData Table 1. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Features.FeatureFigure letter(s)Found in bacteria,plants, and/or animals?Present in prokaryotes,eukaryotes, or both?CytoplasmG, M, EEPlants, animals, andbacteriaBothNucleusGolgi ApparatusEndoplasmicReticulumMitochondrionChloroplastRibosomeLysosomeCell MembraneCell Wallwww.HOLscience.com17©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticFlagellumCapsuleFimbriaeQuestionsA. List the features that are found in eukaryotes but not prokaryotes. What are advantagesprovided by these features?B. List the features found in prokaryotes but not eukaryotes. What are advantages provided bythese features?www.HOLscience.com18©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticExercise 2: Observing Prokaryotes and EukaryotesData Table 2. Initial Notes and Observations.Plant, Animal,Protist, or BacteriaSlideProkaryote orEukaryoteGeneral ObservationsSpirogyraCheek Smear,HumanAmoeba, StainedOnion Root TipMitosisMixed Prokaryote& EukaryoteBacteria SmearData Table 3. Labeled Slides.SlideLabeled Photograph(s)Spirogyrawww.HOLscience.com19©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticCheek Smear, HumanAmoeba, StainedOnion Root Tip MitosisMixed Prokaryote & Eukaryotewww.HOLscience.com20©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticBacteria SmearQuestionsA. Describe the characteristics of the Mixed Prokaryote & Eukaryote slide photograph thatallowed you to identify the prokaryotes and the eukaryotes. Use your observations in DataTable 2 to help explain your answer.B. Describe the similarities and differences between a cell wall and a cell membrane.C. How many features were you able to label when viewing the Bacteria Smear slide photograph?Explain how the size of the bacteria affects the ability to view specific features.www.HOLscience.com21©Hands-On Labs, Inc. ExperimentCells: Prokaryotic and EukaryoticD. Explain the function of cytoplasm, mitochondrion, cell membrane, flagellum, fimbriae, andnucleus. Identify any of these features that are specific to a prokaryotic or eukaryotic.www.HOLscience.com22©Hands-On Labs, Inc.
Expert answer:BIOL 165 – Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
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