Solved by a verified expert:CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS Chap 9.12. Describe the organization of the eukaryotic chromosome.13. Describe the structure and complementary base pairing of DNA.14. How do the linear chromosomes in eukaryotes ensure that its ends are replicated completely?15. Transcribe and translate the following DNA sequence (nontemplate strand): 5′- ATGGCCGGTTATTAAGCA-3’16. Describe how controlling gene expression will alter the overall protein levels in the cell.CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS Chap 10.10. What is the purpose and benefit of the polymerase chain reaction?11. Today, it is possible for a diabetic patient to purchase human insulin from a pharmacist. What technology makes this possible and why is it a benefit over how things used to be?12. Describe two of the applications for genome mapping.13. Identify a possible advantage and a possible disadvantage of a genetic test that would identify genes in individuals that increase their probability of having Alzheimer’s disease later in life.CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS Chap 11.15. If a person scatters a handful of plant seeds from one species in an area, how would natural selection work in this situation?16. Explain the Hardy-Weinberg principle of equilibrium.17. Describe natural selection and give an example of natural selection at work in a population.18. Why do scientists consider vestigial structures evidence for evolution?19. Why do island chains provide ideal conditions for adaptive radiation to occur?20. Two species of fish had recently undergone sympatric speciation. The males of each species had a different coloring through which females could identify and choose a partner from her own species. After some time, pollution made the lake so cloudy it was hard for females to distinguish colors. What might take place in this situation?21. How does the scientific meaning of “theory” differ from the common, everyday meaning of the word?22. Explain why the statement that a monkey is more evolved than a mouse is incorrect.CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS Chap 1213. How does a phylogenetic tree indicate major evolutionary events within a lineage?14. List the different levels of the taxonomic classification system.15. Dolphins and fish have similar body shapes. Is this feature more likely a homologous or analogous trait?16. Describe maximum parsimony.17. How does a biologist determine the polarity of a character change?