Solved by a verified expert:BIOL 1408 Final Exam ReviewLesson 8: RespirationDescribe the purpose of respiration and the effect of oxygen availability on energy pathways.Describe the structure of mitochondria, identifying the location of each stage of aerobic respiration.Identify the reactants and products of glycolysis, describing when and where ATP is used and synthesized.Identify the reactants and products of the formation of Acetyl-CoA and Krebs cycle, describing when and where ATP isused and synthesized.Relate the key products of the first two stages of aerobic respiration with their role in oxidative phosphorylation.Explain how the energy of a concentration gradient can be used to synthesize ATP by oxidative phosphorylation.Identify the basic differences between aerobic and anaerobic pathways in different living organisms.Identify alternate sources of energy (food) and how and where they enter respiration pathways.Lesson 9: MitosisDescribe the structure of chromosomes and the role of structural packaging and organization of DNA.List the activities that occur during interphase, both in cell function and in preparation for mitosis.What is Interphase? What is happening in each phase of Interphase? G1, S, and G2Identify the stages of mitosis and the events that occur during each stage. Compare the daughter cells with the originalparent cell. How many cells are made?Identify how and when the cytoplasm divides in animal and plant cells. What is Cytokinesis? How does it differ betweenplant and animal cells? (cleavage furrow vs. cell plate)Identify sites of checkpoint regulation in the cell cycle stages.Explain how cancer develops when cell cycle regulation is disrupted.Lesson 10: DNA ReplicationDescribe the structure of DNA. (double helix? Twisted ladder? 4 nitrogen bases? What holds DNA strands together?What makes up the sides of the DNA ladder?) What is the nucleotide structure: sugar, phosphate, nitrogen baseDescribe the history of DNA discovery as the hereditary molecule. Watson and Crick; Watkins and Franklin; ChargaffDescribe how the pattern of base-pairing between DNA strands provides both stability and easy replication. (G pairs withC; A pairs with T)Explain the process of DNA replication including how strands are separated, the enzymes involved, and how the DNAtemplate works to identify and repair errors. Where does DNA replication take place? When? Why?Enzymes involved: What does each do?o Helicase?o Primase?o DNA polymerase?o DNA ligase? Lesson 11: Gene ExpressionDescribe the structure of RNA. RNA types: mRNA, rRNA, tRNA. How does each type of RNA function?Compare and contrast DNA and RNADescribe the structure and function of RNA molecules involved in gene expression.Explain the process of transcription including the proteins and RNA molecules involved in regulation, separation of DNAstrands, synthesis, and processing. Where does this process take place? When? Why?Initiation: promoter, RNA Polymerase (how does RNA polymerase make the RNA from DNA?)ElongationTermination: termination signalIdentify the information being transcribed and translated, recognizing the genetic code in the triplets of mRNA. Be ableto use the Genetic code: Take a codon and determine amino acid sequence of protein.Describe the process of translation including ribosomal function and the role of tRNA molecules. Where does thisprocess take place? When? Why?Initiation: ribosome subunits, mRNA, tRNAElongation: tRNA binding sites, codon and anti-codon pairing, making peptide bondTermination: stop codonIdentify the types of mutations occurring in genes and the expected effects on cells.InsertionDeletionBase pair substitutionsLesson 12: Sexual ReproductionDescribe the role of homologous chromosomes in sexual reproduction.Compare and contrast the costs and benefits of asexual and sexual reproduction.Identify the stages of meiosis by the events that occur during each stage. What occurs at each stage? What is separatingin Meiosis I? What is separating in Meiosis II? Compare the daughter cells with the original parent cell. How many cellsare made?Chromosome number – diploid versus haploidDiploid = 2 sets of chromosomes: 2 copies of each chromosome present in cell (humans have 46chromosomes or 23 pairs of chromosomes)Haploid = 1 set of chromosomes: gametesCompare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.Identify how and where genetic variation is introduced among offspring by crossing over and metaphase alignments.Crossing over – what is it? When does it occur?Homologous chromosome shuffling – what is it? When does it occur?Describe the structure and function of human male reproductive organs.Describe the structure and function of human female reproductive organs.Compare and contrast the process of sperm and egg formation. Lesson 13: Patterns of InheritanceIdentify how Mendel’s law of segregation applies to inheritance of alleles.Terminology:GenesAllelesHomozygousHeterozygousDominantRecessivePunnett SquareP generationF1 generationF2 generationTestcrossGenotypePhenotypeMonohybrid crossDihybrid crossCodominanceIncomplete DominanceMultiple AllelesPolygenic Inheritance Using Punnett squares, predict the outcomes of simulated and real reproductive crosses involving single traits.Identify how Mendel’s law of independent assortment applies to inheritance of alleles at multiple gene loci.Using Punnett squares, predict the outcomes of simulated and real reproductive crosses involving two or more traits.Identify inheritance patterns demonstrated by traits and alleles.Recognize how genes and gene products interact to affect phenotypic inheritance.Be able to use a Punnett Square to complete monohubrid crosses and dihybrid crosses involving dominant/ recessiveinheritance, X-linked inheritance, incomplete dominance, codominance, or multiple allelesWhat are the parent genotypes?What are the possible gametes they produce?What is the genotype ratio for the cross?What is the phenotype ratio for the cross?Lesson 14: Human GeneticsIdentify the kinds of gross chromosomal changes that can be inherited, and their possible effects on offspring.Turner syndrome (XO)Klinefelter syndrome (XXY)Down’s syndrome (extra Chromosome 21)Describe the causes and effects of changes in chromosome number.Identify key genetic disorders that can arise from nondisjunction.Turner syndrome (XO)Klinefelter syndrome (XXY)Down’s syndrome (extra Chromosome 21)Collecting information from a pedigree, determine inheritance patterns and predict the probability of inheritance of atrait by offspring.