Solved by a verified expert:Question 13.75 points out of 3.75Question textInterferon production is stimulated bySelect one:a. a viral infection.b. the complement cascade.c. antigen-presenting cells.d. degranulation of basophils.e. inflammation.Question 23.75 points out of 3.75Question textThe lining of a capillary is called theSelect one:a. endothelium.b. adventitia.c. pericapillary layer.d. thoroughfare layer.e. tunica adventitia.Question 33.75 points out of 3.75Question textAntibodiesSelect one:a. activate antigens.b. may initiate inflammation and enhance phagocytosis.c. are proteins produced by T helper cells.d. are needed for costimulation.e. have memory.Question 43.75 points out of 3.75Question textA blood clot attached to a blood vessel wall is called a(an)Select one:a. thrombus.b. embolus.c. prostacylin.d. hemorrhage.e. anticoagulant.Question 53.75 points out of 3.75Question textThe white pulp of the spleenSelect one:a. contains lymphocytes that can stimulate an immune response.b. filters lymph as it flows through the spleen.c. destroys defective red blood cells.d. stimulates immune responses, filter lymph, and destroys defective red blood cells.Question 63.75 points out of 3.75Question textWhat event(s) occur during the QRS complex of an ECG?Select one:a. depolarization of the atriab. repolarization of the ventriclesc. depolarization of the atria and repolarization of the ventriclesd. depolarization of the ventricles and repolarization of the atriaQuestion 73.75 points out of 3.75Question textThe highest level of exercise that can be performed without causing a significant change in blood pH is called theSelect one:a. Hering-Breuer reflex.b. aerobic threshold.c. anaerobic threshold.d. lactic acid tolerance level.Question 8Correct3.75 points out of 3.75Question textMost carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodSelect one:a. in the form of bicarbonate ions.b. bound to hemoglobin.c. dissolved in the plasma.d. by the leukocytes.e. in the form of carbonic acid.Question 93.75 points out of 3.75Question textRegurgitation of blood flow through the aortic semilunar valve would give rise toSelect one:a. the first heart sound.b. the second heart sound.c. a heart murmur.d. an extra heart beat.e. end-systolic volume.Question 103.75 points out of 3.75Question textThe “pacemaker” of the heart is theSelect one:a. right bundle branch.b. left bundle branch.c. AV node.d. SA node.e. PM node.Question 113.75 points out of 3.75Question textIn capillary exchange, which of the following statements is true?Select one:a. Most fluid that leaves the arterial end of a capillary reenters the venous end of a capillary.b. Interstitial fluid normally has a higher osmotic pressure than plasma.c. Constriction of the precapillary sphincter will increase blood pressure in the capillary.d. Interstitial protein concentration is normally higher than plasma protein concentration.e. Most fluid that leaves the arterial end of a capillary enters the lymphatic system.3.75 points out of 3.75Question textThe two major types of phagocytic cells areSelect one:a. neutrophils and monocytes.b. neutrophils and macrophages.c. monocytes and macrophages.d. lymphocytes and monocytes.e. eosinophils and T cells.Question 133.75 points out of 3.75Question textWhen carbon dioxide levels in the blood increase, theSelect one:a. condition is called hypocapnia.b. pH of the blood increases.c. blood becomes more acidic.d. number of hydrogen ions in the blood decreases.e. blood becomes more alkaline.Question 143.75 points out of 3.75Question textWhich of the following is associated with the tongue?Select one:a. uvulab. constrictor musclesc. papillae and taste budsd. periodontal ligamente. faucesQuestion 153.75 points out of 3.75Question textMr. Huff and Puff is getting ready to blow up a pool float because he can’t find the air pump. He takes a big breath in after exhaling normally. The air he takes in is theSelect one:a. inspiratory reserve volume.b. vital capacity.c. inspiratory capacity.d. tidal volume.Question 163.75 points out of 3.75Question textWhat is the function of interstitial cells of the myenteric plexus?Select one:a. chemoreceptors that detect the chemical composition of foodb. production of mucus for lubrication and protectionc. pacemaker cells that promote rhythmic contractions of the smooth muscled. release of enzymes for chemical digestionQuestion 173.75 points out of 3.75Question textWhich of the following thoracic organs is supplied by a parietal branch of the thoracic aorta?Select one:a. the heartb. the lungsc. the esophagusd. the intercostal musclese. the thymus glandQuestion 183.75 points out of 3.75Question textIronSelect one:a. is needed to produce hemoglobin.b. is a plasma coagulation factor.c. is the binding site for carbon dioxide on the hemoglobin molecule.d. prevents carbon monoxide from binding to hemoglobin.e. interferes with the normal function of hemoglobin.Question 193.75 points out of 3.75Question textWhich of the following most accurately describes how foreign substances can activate complement?Select one:a. Antibodies can bind to foreign antigens and activate complement through the classical pathway.b. Foreign substances can bind to spontaneously activated C3 and stabilize it.c. Foreign proteins bind to C1 and activate it.d. Foreign proteins are phagocytized by macrophages and directly activate complement.e. Antibodies can bind to foreign antigens and activate complement through the classical pathway and foreign substances can bind to spontaneously activated C3 and stabilize it.Question 203.75 points out of 3.75Question textAction potentials pass from one myocardial cell to another through areas of low electrical resistance calledSelect one:a. gap junctions.b. fibrous heart rings.c. electromagnetic discs.d. sarcolemma sclerotic plaques.e. tight junctions.Question 213.75 points out of 3.75Question textThe oral cavitySelect one:a. opens into the nasopharynx.b. directly connects with the esophagus.c. contains the parotid salivary glands.d. has boundaries that include the lips, palate and cheeks.e. is lined with cuboidal epithelium.Question 223.75 points out of 3.75Question textTrypsin can activateSelect one:a. pepsinogen.b. chymotrypsinogen.c. angiotensinogen.d. endopeptidase.e. lipase.Question 233.75 points out of 3.75Question textCoronary artery disease can diminish myocardial blood flow resulting in the death of myocardial cells. This medical condition is known as a myocardialSelect one:a. attack.b. angina.c. necrosis.d. cirrhosis.e. infarction.Question 243.75 points out of 3.75Question textWhat does “D” represent on the diagram?Select one:a. spleenb. thymusc. axillary lymph noded. inguinal lymph nodee. thoracic ductQuestion 253.75 points out of 3.75Question textIn the platelet release reaction,Select one:a. factor XII is activated.b. ADP and thromboxanes stimulate other platelets to become activated.c. activated platelets are connected by fibrinogen.d. prostaglandin production is inhibited.e. platelets convert to fibrin.Question 263.75 points out of 3.75Question textA protein that helps to protect the body against viral infections isSelect one:a. complement.b. interferon.c. lysozyme.d. histamine.e. kinin.Question 273.75 points out of 3.75Question textAn incompetent pulmonary semilunar valve could result in less blood reaching theSelect one:a. lungs.b. heart muscle.c. right ventricle.d. aorta.e. right atrium.Question 283.75 points out of 3.75Question textThe nervous system and certain chemicals can cause the constriction of a blood vessel. This is known asSelect one:a. platelet adhesion.b. vascular spasm.c. hemostasis.d. coagulation.Question 293.75 points out of 3.75Question textThe portion of the pharynx that extends from the internal nares to the level of the uvula is theSelect one:a. glottis.b. nasopharynx.c. oropharynx.d. laryngopharynx.e. glottopharynx.Question 303.75 points out of 3.75Question textIn comparison to a low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a high density lipoprotein (HDL) containsSelect one:a. less lipid.b. less protein.c. more cholesterol.d. more carbohydrate.e. more amino acids.Question 313.75 points out of 3.75Question textThe redness and heat seen in an inflamed area are the result ofSelect one:a. vasoconstriction.b. increased blood flow to the area.c. phagocyte mobilization.d. production of interferon.e. a reddish substance released by erythrocytes.Question 323.75 points out of 3.75Question textSurfactant facilitates alveolar ventilation bySelect one:a. decreasing the surface tension between water molecules on the lining of the alveoli.b. decreasing thoracic compliance.c. attracting water to the alveolar surface.d. increasing the surface area for gas exchange.e. increases the surface tension between fluid and the alveoli.Question 333.75 points out of 3.75Question textThe longest vein in the body is theSelect one:a. superior vena cava.b. inferior vena cava.c. hepatic portal vein.d. great saphenous vein.e. femoral vein.Question 343.75 points out of 3.75Question textWhich blood component is NOT correctly matched with its function?Select one:a. erythrocytes – transport oxygenb. leukocytes – protect against diseasec. platelets – phagocytize bacteriad. plasma proteins – maintain blood osmotic pressure; involved in clottinge. monocytes – become macrophagesQuestion 353.75 points out of 3.75Question textMost nutrient absorption occurs in theSelect one:a. stomach and esophagus.b. duodenum and jejunum.c. ascending colon and cecum.d. pancreatic duct and gall bladder.e. ileum and transverse colon.Question 363.75 points out of 3.75Question textWhen erythrocytes are destroyed, which of the following events occurs?Select one:a. Urine output increases.b. Iron is secreted into the bile.c. Heme is transported by transferrin to the liver.d. The globin portion of the molecule is broken down into amino acids.e. Bile is manufactured by the gall bladder.Question 373.75 points out of 3.75Question textOn this diagram label pulse point “E”.Select one:a. femoral arteryb. radial arteryc. common carotid arteryd. popliteal arterye. brachial arteryQuestion 383.75 points out of 3.75Question textThe lymphatic system plays a role in maintaining fluid balance within the body bySelect one:a. adding lymph to GI tract secretions.b. returning interstitial fluid to the plasma.c. transporting lymph from tissues to the liver.d. carrying excess fluid to the kidneys to be excreted.e. actively absorbing fluid from the blood.Question 393.75 points out of 3.75Question textHormones from the adrenal medullaSelect one:a. are released in response to parasympathetic stimulation.b. cause vasodilation in blood vessels of the skin.c. decrease the heart rate.d. cause an increase in stroke volume.e. are released in response to vagal stimulation.Question 403.75 points out of 3.75Question textTolerance to antigens is induced bySelect one:a. blocking costimulation.b. stimulating interleukin 2 production.c. preventing suppressor T cell proliferation.d. promoting the release of cytokines.e. stimulating helper T cell division.