Solved by a verified expert:13 possible points)1. (a)[1 pt] You have been conducting your graduate research on the Australian cockroach (Periplanetaaustralasiae), and detect a biased sex ratio in one local population: there are 111 males, and 320females. What is the effective population size of this local population? Page 1 of 8 (b)[1 pt] In an isolated subpopulation of rabbits, you find an equal number of males and females (9each), but find that their reproductive success varies. You count the number of offspring of all 18individuals and obtain this data:Males #Offspring Females #Offspring George 11 McKayla 11 Carlito 13 Susan 12 Timothy 0 Dominique 11 Miguel 5 Alejandra 12 Gregory 4 Rosemary 9 Pablo 13 Agnes 8 Ethan 15 Elizabeth 7 Zack 12 Karen 10 Leonard 7 Bethany 9 What is the effective population size of this subpopulation? (NOTE TO CALCULATE VARIANCE USE THEVAR FUNCTION IN EXCEL OR USE THE SUM OF THE SQUARED DEVIATIONS DIVIDED BY N-1, WHICH ISWHAT EXCEL USES IN THE VAR FUNCTION) Page 2 of 8 (c)[1 pt] Finally, you’ve been tracking the population size of one particular population of dragonflies for10 years. Here are your raw data: N Year1 Year2 Year3 Year4 Year5 Year6 Year7 Year8 Year9 Year10 435 511 22 478 976 880 401 32 56 524 What is the effective population size of this population, given this population history? Page 3 of 8 2. [3 pts] You are given the following information from a single genetic locus (with two alleles) fromseveral subpopulations of the American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). PopulationKentuckyNew YorkFloridaGeorgiaCalifornia Observedp0.200.200.250.280.31 Observedheterozygosity0.250.270.310.320.28 Calculate the F-statistics for these populations (the bars over the capital letters have been omittedbelow). First calculate the three H statisticsHi =Hs=Ht=Then, use the H-statistics to calculate the F-statisticsFis=Fst=Fit=For each of the three F-statistics, interpret the results. Remember that for F st, Wright gave somecategories of differentiation, so be sure to tell us which of these categories the overall metapopulationfits into. Page 4 of 8 3. (a) [0.5 pt] Given a metapopulation with a starting F ST of 0, if effective population size of thesubpopulations is 14 for 6 generations, what is the predicted F ST after the 6 generations. (b) [0.5 pt] Given a metapopulation with a starting FST of 0, if effective population size of thesubpopulations is 600 for 6 generations, what is the predicted F ST after the 5 generations. (c) [1 pt] Briefly explain, in a biological sense, not just a mathematical sense, why you got differentanswers in (a) and (b) above? Page 5 of 8 4.(a) [1 pt] Fill in the blanks in the following table: genotype # offspring (absolute fitness) AA 2998 Aa 3014 aa 2012 relative fitness (w) selection coefficient (b) [1 pt] Using the data in the table above, calculate the mean fitness of the population. Use thenumbers of offspring as an estimate of the genotype frequencies in the population. genotype genotype frequencyAA0.25Aa0.50aa0.25 Page 6 of 8 (c) [1 pt] What is the predicted equilibrium frequency of the A allele? Page 7 of 8 5(a) [1 pt] What is the predicted equilibrium frequency of a completely recessive, deleterious mutantallele with a mutation rate of 0.00002 and a selection coefficient of 0.06? (b) [1 pt] What is the predicted equilibrium frequency of allele z given that the mutation rate from Z to zis 0.00002 and the following relative fitnesses:ZZ: relative fitness=1Zz: relative fitness=0.9zz: relative fitness=0.6 Page 8 of 8