Solved by a verified expert:HW: Deer Data Analysis BIO 160, Spring 2017 Name __________________________________________Part ONE: Black-tailed deer inhabit forests along the Pacific coast of North America dominated byconifers such as Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and Sitka Spruce. These forests tend to be relatively cool,wet, and productive. Despite the moderating effect of the Pacific Ocean, the deer are exposed to someharsh winters at the northern end of their range. Temperatures are not exceptionally low, but snowcommonly accumulates to depths that present deer with serious problems, such as lack of food andmobility.You are a wildlife biologist working in the Tongass National Forest in Alaska. You are part of a region widetask force, charged with developing a plan for managing the black-tailed deer.You have 5 years of data on deer densities in your district from each of three forest types (see mapbelow) as well as measures of winter snow accumulation (see table below). Year20092010201120122014Average Winter snowaccumulation (cm)408530752050 Ratios of deer densitiesEarly21214 Mid11111 Old26151 2 1 3 Midterm, NRC 564-F141. How do the deer’s preferences change with the harshness of the winter? Why the shift?2. Choose from the following options below, and explain your detailed management plan.a.b.c.d. Prioritize conserving old growth forestCreate canopy gaps in mid-successional forestMaintain a mixture of all 3 forest types in the landscapePrioritize generating more early successional forest Part TWO: The Quabbin Reservoir is a major source of drinking water for urban populations in greaterBoston, but it and the surrounding preserved lands encompass one of the largest contiguous pieces ofwoodland in Massachusetts. Thus, the Quabbin is managed for a wide variety of uses including thelocation for the endangered Timber Rattlesnake headstart program.By the 1980s, managers of the Quabbin Reservoir were aware that the forests around the reservoir werenot regenerating similar to at Yellowstone. They became convinced that this was due to excessivebrowsing by deer. Hunting had been prohibited for decades, but they began allowing deer hunting in alimited way in 1991. You are asked to lead a study of the impacts of the change in hunting policy. Belowis a table showing the relationship between the shrub Mountain Laurel (commonly eaten by deer) andWhite-tailed Deer populations over the decades. W-T Deer Populations in the Quabbin2010 2000 1990 19800 2 4 6 8 Deer Density Column1 10 12 14 1. Using the bar graph above answer the following questions.a. Between which decades did the Mountain Laurel populations increase the least?b. Describe the relationship between White-tailed Deer and Mountain Laurel.2. BONUS: Define 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order levels of habitat selection, of the deer population. Midterm, NRC 564-F141st 2nd 3rd 4th – 3. Using LIDAR to examine the height of vegetation in different layers of the forest, you find thatthe vertical structure in forest stands on one section of the Quabbin looks like graph #1 while thestands on another section look like graph #2. Deer hunting has been allowed in Stand 2, but notin Stand 1.a. Which stand is most likely old-growth forest and which is most likely early-successional?b. Explain what the differences are between the two stands, and how deer hunting mayhave been responsible for those differences.
Expert answer:BIO 160 Midterm -Black-tailed deer inhabit forests
by | Sep 2, 2021 | Uncategorized
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