Solved by a verified expert:Final Study Guide Chapter 17: Endocrine System Know functions of endocrine system.How does endocrine communication vary from direct, paracrine, and synapticcommunication?Be able to identify the following structures and the hormones they produce/secrete:o Hypothalamuso Pituitary gland Anterior lobe (Adenohypophysis) Posterior lobe (Neurohypophysis)o Adrenal glands medulla cortexo Pancreaso GonadsWhat are target cells?How can hormones be classified?How do non-lipid soluble hormones (catecholamines and peptide hormones) exert effecton target cells? What signaling mechanism is most common?How does this action compare to those hormones that are lipid soluble?Give an example of how negative feedback is used to regulate hormone release.Be familiar with processes surrounding rising and falling blood glucose levels.What are the secondary endocrine functions of the following organs/tissue:o Intestineso Kidneyso Hearto Thymuso Gonadso Adipose tissueHow does aging impact the endocrine system? Chapters 10 & 11: Muscles What are the three types of muscle tissue and what are the differentiating characteristics of each?Where in the body are the muscle types found?What are functions of skeletal muscles?Know the levels of organization of skeletal muscle, including the connective tissue coverings atthe various levels.What are tendons and aponeuroses? What do they do?Know the functions/locations of the following structures of a muscle cell:o Sarcolemmao Sarcoplasmo Sarcoplasmic reticulumo T-tubuleso Terminal cisternae Final Study Guide Triado Myofilaments Thin filaments Tropomyosin Troponin Thick filaments Tail Heado SarcomereWhat is the sliding filament model of contraction? How does it work?Know the chain of events that occur to initiate muscle contractions, starting at the axon(Flix #1 Events at the neuromuscular junction).What is acetylcholine? Acetylcholinesterase?What is excitation – contraction coupling? What happens during the process (Flix #2 –Excitation-Contraction coupling)What part does calcium play in contraction?What happens in the cross bridge cycle? Know the steps involved (Flix #3 – the crossbridge cycle)What factors determine contraction duration? Relaxation?What is a motor unit and how does the size of the motor unit influence the control of themovement produced?Contrast isometric and isotonic muscle contractions.What enables a muscle to relax?Describe mechanisms by which ATP is produced—aerobic and anaerobic.How much of the energy in glucose is converted to ATP? What happens to the energy that is notconverted to ATP?What is muscle fatigue and what conditions result from muscle fatigue?What is hypertrophy? Atrophy?What are characteristics of the three types of muscle fibers (fast/slow; oxidative/glycolytic)?What type of actions do each of the fiber types produce?How are smooth muscles different from skeletal muscles? Know the major characteristics.What are the four functional types of muscles? What do they do?How are skeletal muscles named?Differentiate between parallel, convergent, pennate, and circular muscles.Know the location of muscles listed on the “muscles to know” handout Chapters 25-26: Urinary System, Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance What are the functions of the urinary system?What are the organs associated with the urinary system and what is each of theirfunctions?What is urine?Be able to identify the kidney renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pyramid, fibrouscapsule, renal pelvis, major calyx, ureters.How much of the cardiac output flows through the kidneys?What is a nephron? Final Study Guide Know structures and functions (ie, what happens where) of nephron and collectingsystem components (Glomerulus, PCT, loop of Henle, DCT, collecting duct)Describe the following processes as they pertain to the urinary system: filtration,reabsorption, and secretion.o What materials are reabsorbed? Secreted?Describe the filtration membrane located in the renal corpuscle.How do ADH and aldosterone affect the final concentration of urine? What will resultfrom an absence of ADH? The presence of ADH?What is ANP and what effect does it have on the urinary system?What is the normal composition of urine? (pH, volume, color, specific gravity, etc)Know variations between male and female urinary structures.What are ECFs and ICFs? Understand relative percentages of each compartment andvariations between males and females.Compare cation and anion concentrations between the ECF and ICF.Be able to differentiate between high/low electrolyte conditions.What is edema and what causes it?How are daily water losses balanced by water gains?What is normal ECF pH? Alkalemia? Acidemia?How do buffer systems maintain the acid-base balance?Which buffer systems occur in the ICF? The ECF?How do protein buffers work?What is the role of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system?Describe the role of the phosphate buffer system.What are respiratory compensatory mechanisms? Renal compensatory mechanisms?What is respiratory acidosis? Respiratory alkalosis? Metabolic acidosis? Metabolicalkalosis?