Write 3 pages thesis on the topic classical and instrumental conditioning of learning. Classical and Instrumental Learning: The Similarities: Classical conditioning of learning and the instrumental conditioning are two essential elements of the behavioural psychology. There have been several debates along with the studies and researches in determining how the two conditional learning might act together or how they are similar to each other. Although the differences are significant, yet it has been obtained that these two forms of learning share in common a number of effects among each other. One of the important factors in the process of learning is reinforcement. Such reinforcements may be primary or secondary. While primary reinforcements are essential for the wellbeing of an organism, secondary reinforcements are learned and not crucial for the purpose of survival (Chapter: Learning, n.d., p.229). Primary and secondary reinforcements are essential factors in both the forms of learning discussed in the study. There are certain other factors as well that are common between the two conditional learning. These include the need to direct reinforcement in the correct form to influence the conditioned response effectively. Similarity is also found in the fading away of the response when it is no longer reinforced. In both the cases, the responses to stimuli although similar are not the same like the earlier responses. A fourth similarity is in the discrimination or the ability to respond to a stimulus and not to another if it is similar in nature. When a punishment is directed, the effectiveness of the punishment is associated with the power of the punishment, its stability, its frequency, and the strength of the response that needs to be removed (Chapter: Learning, n.d., pp.229-230). Thus from all these similarities, and both the processes leading to learning, it can be understood that these forms have the ability to act together. Classical and Instrumental Learning: The Differences: While some of the similarities have been obtained in the two forms of learning, it is essential to understand the differences that scientists have obtained through their experiments between the classical and instrumental conditioned learning. Ivan Pavlov had first explained classical conditioning of learning that is focused on involuntary, automatic behaviour and involves introducing a neutral signal&nbsp.ahead of&nbsp.a reflex. The instrumental or operant conditioning was first explained by an American scientist named B.F. Skinner. This form of learning has its focus on reinforcement or declining intentional behaviours and involves application of reinforcement or punishment subsequent to a behavioural activity (Cherry, 2012). The Working of Classical and Instrumental Learning: Ivan Pavlov had conducted certain experiment on dogs that explains the working of the classical conditioning. In his experiment, a dog was been provided with food, accompanied with sounds of a bell. It was found that the dog every time reacted to the sound of the bell and got attracted to the food. Pavlov realized that this was a learned experience that the dog was reflecting.