Hi, need to submit a 1500 words paper on the topic Anthropology Questions. The manifestations associated with islamophobia include radicalism, political Islam or jihadism. This is mostly in the west and especially after the 9/11 tragedy in the US. Islamophobes believe that the Islam religion is the foundation of radicalism among the youth. As such, they claim that Islam is intrinsically a terrorist ideology or religion. The media has especially played a part in the propagation of Islamophobia as many of the media houses in their reporting associate terrorism with Muslim radicals.European scholarship on the Islamic city in the twentieth century was established on two approaches. One approach attributed the Islamic city’s structure to social and religious factors while the other described their structure through an approach that was dependent on an analysis of the urban structure and physical features. The first approach stemmed from German orientalist studies in which the Islamic city was a representation of the theoretical rather than the actual horizon guided by archaeological, historical and social interests. It was an urban system as shown by the different structures from the western one as it was based on a different social organization. The second approach was from French Orientalist studies. Here, the knowledge of an Islamic city was more tangible and immediate as it was born from the actual conquest of extended territories around the Mediterranean (Abu-loghod, 1987).William Marcas introduced several themes that can be associated with the Islamic city. He mentioned several characteristics of the physical Islamic city such as a congregational Friday mosque, a market and a chief bazaar, a public bath which is of a functional significance to the believers attending the mosque for Friday prayers.Marcas noted that new cities were founded by dynasties associated with Islam, therefore, reinforcing the point that Islamic civilization was not just a set of religious beliefs but rather a functioning Islamic society.