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One of the problems in environmental ethics regarding entire ecosystems is their lack of inclusion in moral theory. Ecosystems are neither considered a person nor consciousness and thus cannot be defended in a court of law.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of each of the following moral theories as a basis for protecting an ecosystem?
Social contract theory.
The principle of utility.
Rights.
The principle of equality
In your view, how can ecosystems best be defended
?